The salivary testosterone and cortisol response to three loading schemes.
ABSTRACT This aim of this study was to examine the free hormone (in saliva) responses to squat workouts performed by recreationally weight-trained males, using either a power (8 sets of 6 reps, 45% 1 repetition maximum [1RM], 3-minute rest periods, ballistic movements), hypertrophy (10 sets of 10 reps, 75% 1RM, 2-minute rest periods, controlled movements), or maximal strength scheme (6 sets of 4 reps, 88% 1RM, 4-minute rest periods, explosive intent). To determine the relative importance of the different training variables, these schemes were equated by workout duration with the power and strength schemes also equated by load volume. Salivary testosterone (T) and cortisol (C) both increased following the hypertrophy scheme (P < 0.05), with little to no hormonal change across the power and maximal strength schemes (P > 0.05). In general, the postexercise T and C responses to the hypertrophy scheme exceeded the other two schemes (P < 0.05). The greater volume of load lifted in the hypertrophy protocol over the same workout duration may explain the endocrine differences observed. The similar T and C responses to the power and maximal strength schemes (of equal volume) support such a view and suggest that differences in load intensity, rest periods, and technique are secondary to volume. Because the acute hormonal responses to resistance exercise contribute to protein metabolism, then load volume may be the most important workout variable activating the endocrine system and stimulating muscle growth.
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ABSTRACT: Objective To verify the effects of scraping therapy on the weightlifting ability by measuring the subjective sensation, and changes of biomarkers. Methods Five students, who have been trained for 3 years in a sport school in China were participated in this study. A course of scraping therapy was applied to intervene during the normal 7-week of weightlifting training programme. The ability of weightlifting, the scale of rating perceived exertion and serum biochemical markers were measured before and after the intervention. Results Scraping therapy caused a significant increase in weightlifting ability (P<0.05). The level of rating perceived exertion remained stable with the increase in the training volume. Immuno-globulin A was significantly increased (P<0.05), and creatine kinase and blood urea nitrogen were significantly decreased (P<0.05). No significant changes were observed in white blood cell, neutrophil, and testosterone. Conclusion Scraping therapy may facilitate weightlifting ability mainly by decreasing weight sensation and improving serum biochemical parameters.Journal of Traditional Chinese Medicine 02/2014; 34(1):52–56. · 0.59 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Background Testosterone, cortisol and their ratios may be indicators of anabolic status, but technical issues sur-rounding blood sampling has limited wider application. The advent of salivary testosterone (sal-T) analysis sim-plified sample acquisition, resulting in a subsequent rapid increase in the number of published research articles. Objective The objective of this study was to undertake a meta-analysis to determine the effect of acute exercise bouts on post exercise sal-T and salivary cortisol (sal-C) concentrations and their ratio (sal-T:C). Data Sources Relevant databases such as PubMed, Web of Science, Science Direct and SPORTDiscus were sear-ched up to and including 31 December 2013 for the term 'saliva AND testosterone AND exercise'. Study Selection Studies (n = 21) selected from the 933 identified included randomised controlled trials (RCTs; n = 2), uncontrolled trials (UCTs; n = 18) and control trials (CTs; n = 1), all of which had an exercise component characterised as either aerobic, resistance or power training, each with acute sal-T and sal-C measurement obtained within 30 min of exercise bout completion. Study Appraisal and Synthesis Methods A meta-analysis was conducted on change in sal-T, sal-C and the sal-T:C ratio following exercise using standard difference in means (SDM) and a random effects model. Results For aerobic, resistance and power exercise, the overall SDMs for sal-T were 0.891, 1.061 and 0.509, re-spectively; for sal-C, the SDMs were 3.041, 0.773 and 1.200, respectively. For sal-T:C, the SDMs were -2.014, 0.027 and -0.968, respectively. RCTs, UCTs and CTs were separated by subgroup analysis. There were sig-nificant differences in overall weighted SDM values for sal-T between RCTs, UCTs and CTs within exercise modes. When examining aerobic exercise interventions, a quantitative interaction of study design was observed. RCTs resulted in a greater SDM than UCTs (1.337 vs. 0.446). Power interventions displayed a qualitative inter-action with study design. UCTs where baseline measures were obtained 24 h before exercise had an SDM of –1.128, whereas UCTs where baseline was determined immedi-ately prior to exercise had an SDM of 0.486. The single CT trial had an SDM of 2.260. Resistance exercise interven-tions were primarily UCTs; however, an observed influ-ence of baseline sampling time whereby immediately pre-and 24 h pre-exercise resulted in differing SDMs. The sole resistance exercise RCTs resulted in the greatest SDM (2.500). Conclusion The current body of evidence regarding acute responses of sal-T to exercise is weak. This meta-analysis identifies varying exercise-dependent effect sizes. Each appear to be greatly influenced by study design and sample timing. There is a need for more RCTs and a standardised methodology for the measurement of salivary hormones in order to better determine the effect of exercise modality.Sports Medicine 02/2015; · 5.32 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Naval Special Warfare (NSW) Operators are expected to maintain a high degree of physical readiness requiring continual operational training. The physiological and psychological demands associated with operational training can result in physiological consequences evidenced by hormonal alterations justifying the need for periodized training to maintain and/or improve physical readiness. This study examined the pattern and time course of hormone changes during 12-week block-periodized training program (BP) in NSW Operators undergoing routine training. Eighteen NSW Operators (31 ± 6 yrs, 86.6 ± 9.0 kg, 176.2 ± 5.9 cm, 17.5 ± 6.5% fat) participated in a 12-week BP during routine operational training. Salivary free testosterone (FT), dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S), and cortisol (C) were obtained at four time points coincident with changes in intensity and volume. In the second block of training in which intensity and volume were increased, FT and C increased 20.3 ± 7.4% and 20.8 ± 9.9%, respectively. FT and C returned to baseline values concomitant with the decrease in intensity and volume at the conclusion of the third block of training. No significant differences were observed in FT:C ratio over the course of training. DHEA-S increased 23.1 ± 11.0% following block 1, with a further increase observed following block 2 (57.0 ± 17.4%). Our data indicate training following BP produces a pattern and time course of hormone changes congruent with changes in intensity and volume suggesting BP as a potential training model for Naval Special Warfare Operators and other Special Forces Operators involved in operational training.The Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research 07/2014; · 1.86 Impact Factor