The salivary testosterone and cortisol response to three loading schemes.
ABSTRACT This aim of this study was to examine the free hormone (in saliva) responses to squat workouts performed by recreationally weight-trained males, using either a power (8 sets of 6 reps, 45% 1 repetition maximum [1RM], 3-minute rest periods, ballistic movements), hypertrophy (10 sets of 10 reps, 75% 1RM, 2-minute rest periods, controlled movements), or maximal strength scheme (6 sets of 4 reps, 88% 1RM, 4-minute rest periods, explosive intent). To determine the relative importance of the different training variables, these schemes were equated by workout duration with the power and strength schemes also equated by load volume. Salivary testosterone (T) and cortisol (C) both increased following the hypertrophy scheme (P < 0.05), with little to no hormonal change across the power and maximal strength schemes (P > 0.05). In general, the postexercise T and C responses to the hypertrophy scheme exceeded the other two schemes (P < 0.05). The greater volume of load lifted in the hypertrophy protocol over the same workout duration may explain the endocrine differences observed. The similar T and C responses to the power and maximal strength schemes (of equal volume) support such a view and suggest that differences in load intensity, rest periods, and technique are secondary to volume. Because the acute hormonal responses to resistance exercise contribute to protein metabolism, then load volume may be the most important workout variable activating the endocrine system and stimulating muscle growth.
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ABSTRACT: The present study investigated the effect of unilateral and bilateral resistance exercise (RE) on maximal voluntary strength, total volume of load lifted (TVLL), rating of perceived exertion (RPE) and blood lactate concentration of resistance-trained males. Twelve healthy men were assessed for the leg extension one-repetition maximum (1RM) strength using bilateral and unilateral contractions. Following this assessment, an RE session (3 sets of repetitions to failure) was conducted with bilateral and unilateral (both limbs) contractions using a load of 50% 1RM. The TVLL was calculated by the product of the number of repetitions and the load lifted per repetition. RPE and blood lactate were measured before, during and after each set. Session RPE was measured 30 minutes after RE sessions. There was a significant difference in the bilateral (120.0±11.9) and unilateral (135.0±20.2 kg) 1RM strength (p < 0.05). The TVLL was similar between both RE sessions. Although the repetitions decreased with each successive set, the total number of repetitions completed in the bilateral protocol (48) was superior to the unilateral (40) protocol (p < 0.05). In both bouts, RPE increased with each subsequent set whilst blood lactate increased after set 1 and thereafter remained stable (p < 0.05). The RPE and lactate responses were not significantly different between both sessions. In conclusion, a bilateral deficit in leg extension strength was confirmed, but the TVLL was similar between both RE sessions when exercising to voluntary fatigue. This outcome could be attributed to the number of repetitions completed in the unilateral RE bout. The equal TVLL would also explain the similar perceptual and metabolic responses across each RE session.Biology of Sport 03/2015; 32(1):35-40. DOI:10.5604/20831862.1126326 · 0.53 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Background Testosterone, cortisol and their ratios may be indicators of anabolic status, but technical issues sur-rounding blood sampling has limited wider application. The advent of salivary testosterone (sal-T) analysis sim-plified sample acquisition, resulting in a subsequent rapid increase in the number of published research articles. Objective The objective of this study was to undertake a meta-analysis to determine the effect of acute exercise bouts on post exercise sal-T and salivary cortisol (sal-C) concentrations and their ratio (sal-T:C). Data Sources Relevant databases such as PubMed, Web of Science, Science Direct and SPORTDiscus were sear-ched up to and including 31 December 2013 for the term 'saliva AND testosterone AND exercise'. Study Selection Studies (n = 21) selected from the 933 identified included randomised controlled trials (RCTs; n = 2), uncontrolled trials (UCTs; n = 18) and control trials (CTs; n = 1), all of which had an exercise component characterised as either aerobic, resistance or power training, each with acute sal-T and sal-C measurement obtained within 30 min of exercise bout completion. Study Appraisal and Synthesis Methods A meta-analysis was conducted on change in sal-T, sal-C and the sal-T:C ratio following exercise using standard difference in means (SDM) and a random effects model. Results For aerobic, resistance and power exercise, the overall SDMs for sal-T were 0.891, 1.061 and 0.509, re-spectively; for sal-C, the SDMs were 3.041, 0.773 and 1.200, respectively. For sal-T:C, the SDMs were -2.014, 0.027 and -0.968, respectively. RCTs, UCTs and CTs were separated by subgroup analysis. There were sig-nificant differences in overall weighted SDM values for sal-T between RCTs, UCTs and CTs within exercise modes. When examining aerobic exercise interventions, a quantitative interaction of study design was observed. RCTs resulted in a greater SDM than UCTs (1.337 vs. 0.446). Power interventions displayed a qualitative inter-action with study design. UCTs where baseline measures were obtained 24 h before exercise had an SDM of –1.128, whereas UCTs where baseline was determined immedi-ately prior to exercise had an SDM of 0.486. The single CT trial had an SDM of 2.260. Resistance exercise interven-tions were primarily UCTs; however, an observed influ-ence of baseline sampling time whereby immediately pre-and 24 h pre-exercise resulted in differing SDMs. The sole resistance exercise RCTs resulted in the greatest SDM (2.500). Conclusion The current body of evidence regarding acute responses of sal-T to exercise is weak. This meta-analysis identifies varying exercise-dependent effect sizes. Each appear to be greatly influenced by study design and sample timing. There is a need for more RCTs and a standardised methodology for the measurement of salivary hormones in order to better determine the effect of exercise modality.Sports Medicine 02/2015; DOI:10.1007/s40279-015-0306-y · 5.32 Impact Factor