Article

Periostin is required for maturation and extracellular matrix stabilization of noncardiomyocyte lineages of the heart

Cardiovascular Development Group, Herman B Wells Center for Pediatric Research, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, USA.
Circulation Research (Impact Factor: 11.09). 05/2008; 102(7):752-60. DOI: 10.1161/CIRCRESAHA.107.159517
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The secreted periostin protein, which marks mesenchymal cells in endocardial cushions following epithelial-mesenchymal transformation and in mature valves following remodeling, is a putative valvulogenesis target molecule. Indeed, periostin is expressed throughout cardiovascular morphogenesis and in all 4 adult mice valves (annulus and leaflets). Additionally, periostin is expressed throughout the fibrous cardiac skeleton and endocardial cushions in the developing heart but is absent from both normal and/or pathological mouse cardiomyocytes. Periostin (peri(lacZ)) knockout mice exhibit viable valve disease, with neonatal lethality in a minority and latent disease with leaflet abnormalities in the viable majority. Surviving peri(lacZ)-null leaflets are truncated, contain ectopic cardiomyocytes and smooth muscle, misexpress the cartilage proteoglycan aggrecan, demonstrate disorganized matrix stratification, and exhibit reduced transforming growth factor-beta signaling. Neonatal peri(lacZ) nulls that die (14%) display additional defects, including leaflet discontinuities, delamination defects, and deposition of acellular extracellular matrix. Assessment of collagen production, 3D lattice formation ability, and transforming growth factor-beta responsiveness indicate periostin-deficient fibroblasts are unable to support normal valvular remodeling and establishment of a mature cardiac skeleton. Furthermore, pediatric stenotic bicuspid aortic valves that have lost normal extracellular matrix trilaminar stratification have greatly reduced periostin. This suggests that loss of periostin results in inappropriate differentiation of mesenchymal cushion cells and valvular abnormalities via a transforming growth factor-beta-dependent pathway during establishment of the mature heart. Thus, peri(lacZ) knockouts provide a new model of viable latent valve disease.

0 Followers
 · 
133 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: IntroductionPeriostin (Postn) is a secreted cell adhesion protein that activates signaling pathways to promote cancer cell survival, angiogenesis, invasion, and metastasis. Interestingly, Postn is frequently overexpressed in numerous human cancers, including breast, lung, colon, pancreatic, and ovarian cancer.Methods Using transgenic mice expressing the Neu oncogene in the mammary epithelium crossed into Postn-deficient animals, we have assessed the effect of Postn gene deletion on Neu-driven mammary tumorigenesis.ResultsAlthough Postn is exclusively expressed in the stromal fibroblasts of the mammary gland, Postn deletion does not affect mammary gland outgrowth during development or pregnancy. Furthermore, we find that loss of Postn in the mammary epithelium does not alter breast tumor initiation or growth in mouse mammary tumour virus (MMTV)-Neu expressing mice but results in an apocrine-like tumor phenotype. Surprisingly, we find that tumors derived from Postn-null animals express low levels of Notch protein and Hey1 mRNA but increased expression of androgen receptor (AR) and AR target genes. We show that tumor cells derived from wildtype animals do not proliferate when transplanted in a Postn-null environment but that this growth defect is rescued by the overexpression of active Notch or the AR target gene prolactin-induced protein (PIP/GCDFP-15).Conclusion Together our data suggest that loss of Postn in an ErbB2/Neu/HER2 overexpression model results in apocrine-like tumors that activate an AR-dependent pathway. This may have important implications for the treatment of breast cancers involving the therapeutic targeting of periostin or Notch signaling.
    Breast cancer research: BCR 01/2015; 17(1):7. DOI:10.1186/s13058-014-0513-8 · 5.88 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background: Multiple BMP genes are expressed in the developing heart from the initiation to late-differentiation stages, and play pivotal roles in cardiovascular development. In this study, we investigated the requirement of BMP activity in heart development by transgenic over-expression of extracellular BMP antagonist Noggin. Results: Using Nkx2.5-Cre to drive lineage-restricted Noggin within cardiomyocyte progenitors, we show persistent Noggin arrests cardiac development at the linear heart stage. This is coupled with a significantly reduced cell proliferation rate, subsequent cardiomyocyte programmed cell death and reduction of downstream intracellular pSMAD1/5/8 expression. Noggin mutants exhibit reduced heartbeat which likely results in subsequent fully penetrant in utero lethality. Significantly, confocal and electron micrographic examination revealed considerably fewer contractile elements, as well as a lack of maturation of actin-myosin microfilaments. Molecular analysis demonstrated that ectopic Noggin-expressing regions in the early heart's pacemaker region, failed to express the potassium/sodium hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated channel 4 (Hcn4), resulting in an overall decrease in Hcn4 levels. Conclusions: Combined, our results reveal a novel role for BMP signaling in the progression of heart development from the tubular heart stage to the looped stage via regulation of proliferation and promotion of maturation of the in utero heart's contractile apparatus and pacemaker. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Developmental Dynamics 03/2015; 244(3). DOI:10.1002/dvdy.24233 · 2.67 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Periostin actively contributes to tissue injury, fibrosis, atherosclerosis, and inflammatory diseases; however, its role in hepatic fibrosis is unclear. Herein, we revealed that periostin expression was significantly up-regulated in carbon tetrachloride- and bile duct ligation-induced mice with acute and chronic liver fibrosis. Deficiency in periostin abrogated the development of liver fibrosis in mice. Carbon tetrachloride treatment significantly increased α-smooth muscle actin, fibronectin, and collagen I levels in wild-type mice, which were unaffected in periostin-knockout mice. Periostin-deficient mice showed a significantly reduced area of collagen deposition and decreased levels of serum alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase compared with wild-type mice after 2 weeks of carbon tetrachloride administration. Chemokine ligand 2, IL-6, IL-1β, tumor necrosis factor-α, and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases 1 mRNA levels were significantly lower in periostin-deficient mice than in wild-type mice after carbon tetrachloride treatment. Periostin colocalized with hepatic stellate cell-derived collagen I and α-smooth muscle actin in mouse acute and chronic fibrotic liver tissues. Transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 markedly induced periostin expression in primary mouse hepatic stellate cells. Periostin-deficient mice showed significantly lower levels of TGF-β1 and TGF-β2 compared with wild-type mice after carbon tetrachloride treatment. High levels of periostin in patients with acute or chronic hepatitis correlated with TGF-β1 and TGF-β2 expression in serum from patients with hepatitis. Data indicate that periostin is a novel mediator of hepatic fibrosis development. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    American Journal Of Pathology 12/2014; 185(3). DOI:10.1016/j.ajpath.2014.11.002 · 4.60 Impact Factor

Full-text (2 Sources)

Download
44 Downloads
Available from
May 20, 2014