Consensus statement of the European Group on Graves' orbitopathy (EUGOGO) on management of GO.

Department of Clinical Medicine, University of Insubria, 21100 Varese, Italy.
European Journal of Endocrinology (Impact Factor: 3.69). 04/2008; 158(3):273-85. DOI: 10.1530/EJE-07-0666
Source: PubMed
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    ABSTRACT: Herein, the authors report an unusual case of euthyroid optic neuropathy without previous history of endocrinopathy. Visual loss and limitation of extraocular movements developed rapidly in both eyes. An orbital magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed bilateral apical crowding and extraocular muscle hypertrophy with tendon sparing. The restricted visual fields dramatically improved after intravenous pulse corticosteroid therapy. Early diagnosis of euthyroid optic neuropathy and prompt treatment with pulse therapy may result in a favourable visual outcome.
    Neuro-Ophthalmology 07/2012; 36(4). · 0.18 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background. To investigate the influence of previous exposure to elevated thyroid hormones in euthyroid Graves' ophthalmopathy. Design. Retrospective, observational case series in university setting Median follow-up of 1 year with ranges of 0,8-7,6 years. Study performance of 10 years. Participants. We reviewed the clinical records of 731 Graves' ophthalmopathy patients. There were 88 (12%) patients with onset of Graves' ophthalmopathy during euthyroidism: 37 (5%) patients had ophthalmopathy without known history of thyroid dysfunction (group A) and 51 patients (6%) had onset of ophthalmopathy 6 months or more euthyroid after completion of antithyroid therapy (group B). Main Outcome Measures. Graves' ophthalmopathy was graded using the EUGOGO severity criteria. Unilaterality was investigated. TSH receptor antibody and thyroid peroxidase antibody were measured as markers of Graves' disease. Results. Group A had more often a normal ocular motility (46%) and less proptosis (14 ± 4 mm) compared to group B (22%, 16 ± 4 mm) (P = 0.032 and 0.028, resp.). TSH receptor antibody was more frequently elevated in group B (94%) than in group A (17%) (P < 0.001). Conclusion. Patients with euthyroid Graves' ophthalmopathy present more often with ocular muscle restriction and proptosis when previously exposed to elevated thyroid hormones.
    Journal of ophthalmology. 01/2014; 2014:426898.
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    ABSTRACT: To better understand the pathogenesis of thyroid-associated orbitopathy (TAO) through elucidating the role of thyrotropin receptor (TSHR) and CD40 in the expression of interleukin-8 (IL-8) in peripheral blood fibrocytes. Fibrocytes infiltrate the orbit of patients with TAO, where they differentiate into fibroblasts. Fibrocyte precursors occur with increased frequency in the peripheral blood expressing TSHR and CD40 in TAO patients. We hypothesize that in vitro derived fibrocytes and peripheral blood fibrocyte precursors express proinflammatory chemoattractant molecules including IL-8 initiated by TSHR and CD40 signaling. Since nearly all TAO patients express activating antibodies to TSHR, this is particularly relevant for activation of peripheral blood fibrocytes. TSHR and CD40 expression on peripheral blood fibrocytes was determined by flow cytometry. IL-8 RNA was quantitated by real-time polymerase chain reaction. IL-8 protein production was measured by Luminex and flow cytometry. Thyroid-stimulating hormone and CD40 ligand-stimulated phosphorylation of Akt in peripheral blood fibrocytes was studied by flow cytometry. Both TSHR- and CD40-mediated signaling lead to IL-8 expression in mature fibrocytes. Fibrocyte precursors assayed directly from circulating peripheral blood demonstrate intracellular IL-8 expression with addition of thyroid-stimulating hormone or CD40 ligand. TSHR- and CD40-induced IL-8 production is mediated by Akt phosphorylation. Peripheral blood TSHR(+) and CD40(+) fibrocytes express IL-8 and may promote the recruitment of inflammatory cells, mitogenesis, and tissue remodeling in TAO. TSHR- and CD40-mediated IL-8 signaling is mediated by Akt. Delineating the molecular mechanisms of fibrocyte immune function may provide potential therapeutic targets for TAO.
    Transactions of the American Ophthalmological Society 07/2014; 112:26-37.

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