Defaulters from antiretroviral treatment in Jimma University Specialized Hospital, Southwest Ethiopia

Jimma University Faculty Of Public Health Department Of General Public Health, Jimma, Ethiopia.
Tropical Medicine & International Health (Impact Factor: 2.3). 04/2008; 13(3):328-33. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-3156.2008.02006.x
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT To determine the prevalence of and factors associated with defaulting from antiretroviral treatment (ART) in Jimma, Ethiopia.
Unmatched case control study: cases were individuals who had missed two or more clinical appointments (i.e. had not been seen for the last 2 months) between January 2005 and February 2007; controls were individuals who had been on ART at least for 1 year and were rated as excellent adherers by the providers. Data were collected from patient records, and by telephone call and home visit to identify the reason for defaulting.
Of 1270 patients who started ART, 915 (72.0%) were active ART users and 355 (28.0%) had missed two or more clinical appointments. The latter comprised 173 (13.6%) defaulters, 101 (8.0%) who transferred out, 75 (5.9%) who died, and 6 (0.5%) who restarted ART. Reasons for defaulting were unclear in most cases. Reasons given were loss of hope in medication, lack of food, mental illness, holy water, no money for transport, and other illnesses. Tracing was not successful because of incorrect address on the register in 61.6% of the cases. Taking hard drugs (cocaine, cannabis and IV drugs), excessive alcohol consumption, being bedridden, living outside Jimma town and having an HIV negative or unknown HIV status partner were associated with defaulting ART.
A significant proportion of patients defaulted from ART treatment. ART clinics should ensure that patients' addresses are correct and complete. Programmatic and counseling efforts to decrease ART defaulting should address illicit drug and excessive alcohol use, decentralise ART services, institute home-based treatment options for seriously ill and bedridden patients, and address patients concerns.

Download full-text


Available from: Sibhatu Biadgilign, Jul 03, 2015
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: To ascertain the outcome of pre-Antiretroviral therapy (ART) and ART patients defaulting from care and investigate reasons for defaulting. Patients defaulting from HIV care in Chiradzulu between July 2004 and September 2007 were traced at last known home address. Deaths and moves were recorded, and patients found alive were interviewed. Defaulting was defined as missed last appointment by more than 1 month among patients of unknown vital status. A total of 1637 individuals were traced (54%-88% of eligible), 981 pre-ART and 656 ART patients. Of 694 pre-ART patients found, 49% had died (51% of adults and 38% of children), a median of 47 days after defaulting, and 14% had moved away. Of 451 ART patients found, 54% had died (54% of adults and 50% of children), a median of 52 days after defaulting, and 20% had moved away. Overall, 221 patients were interviewed (90% of those found alive), 42% had worked outside the district in the previous year; 49% of pre-ART and 19% of ART patients had not disclosed their HIV status to other household members. Main reasons for defaulting were stigma (43%), care dissatisfaction (34%), improved health (28%) and for ART discontinuation, poor understanding of disease or treatment (56%) and drug side effects (42%). This study in a rural African HIV programme reveals the dynamics related to health service access and use, and it provides information to correct programme mortality estimates for adults and children.
    Tropical Medicine & International Health 06/2010; 15 Suppl 1:55-62. DOI:10.1111/j.1365-3156.2010.02504.x · 2.30 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: To assess the effect of decentralization (DC) of antiretroviral therapy (ART) provision in a rural district of Malawi using an integrated primary care model. Between October 2004 and December 2008, 8093 patients (63% women) were registered for ART. Of these, 3440 (43%) were decentralized to health centres for follow-up ART care. We applied multivariate regression analysis that adjusted for sex, age, clinical stage at initiation, type of regimen, presence of side effects because of ART, and duration of treatment and follow-up at site of analysis. Patients managed at health centres had lower mortality [adjusted OR 0.19 (95% C.I. 0.15-0.25)] and lower loss to follow-up (defaulted from treatment) [adjusted OR 0.48 (95% C.I. 0.40-0.58)]. During the first 10 months of follow-up, those decentralized to health centres were approximately 60% less likely to default than those not decentralized; and after 10 months of follow-up, 40% less likely to default. DC was significantly associated with a reduced risk of death from 0 to 25 months of follow-up. The lower mortality may be explained by the selection of stable patients for DC, and the mentorship and supportive supervision of lower cadre health workers to identify and refer complicated cases. Decentralization of follow-up ART care to rural health facilities, using an integrated primary care model, appears a safe and effective way to rapidly scale-up ART and improves both geographical equity in access to HIV-related services and adherence to ART.
    Tropical Medicine & International Health 06/2010; 15 Suppl 1:90-7. DOI:10.1111/j.1365-3156.2010.02503.x · 2.30 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The retention of patients in antiretroviral therapy (ART) programmes is an important issue in resource-limited settings. Loss to follow up can be substantial, but it is unclear what the outcomes are in patients who are lost to programmes. We searched the PubMed, EMBASE, Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature (LILACS), Indian Medlars Centre (IndMed) and African Index Medicus (AIM) databases and the abstracts of three conferences for studies that traced patients lost to follow up to ascertain their vital status. Main outcomes were the proportion of patients traced, the proportion found to be alive and the proportion that had died. Where available, we also examined the reasons why some patients could not be traced, why patients found to be alive did not return to the clinic, and the causes of death. We combined mortality data from several studies using random-effects meta-analysis. Seventeen studies were eligible. All were from sub-Saharan Africa, except one study from India, and none were conducted in children. A total of 6420 patients (range 44 to 1343 patients) were included. Patients were traced using telephone calls, home visits and through social networks. Overall the vital status of 4021 patients could be ascertained (63%, range across studies: 45% to 86%); 1602 patients had died. The combined mortality was 40% (95% confidence interval 33%-48%), with substantial heterogeneity between studies (P<0.0001). Mortality in African programmes ranged from 12% to 87% of patients lost to follow-up. Mortality was inversely associated with the rate of loss to follow up in the programme: it declined from around 60% to 20% as the percentage of patients lost to the programme increased from 5% to 50%. Among patients not found, telephone numbers and addresses were frequently incorrect or missing. Common reasons for not returning to the clinic were transfer to another programme, financial problems and improving or deteriorating health. Causes of death were available for 47 deaths: 29 (62%) died of an AIDS defining illness. In ART programmes in resource-limited settings a substantial minority of adults lost to follow up cannot be traced, and among those traced 20% to 60% had died. Our findings have implications both for patient care and the monitoring and evaluation of programmes.
    PLoS ONE 06/2009; 4(6):e5790. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0005790 · 3.53 Impact Factor