Virologic determinants of success after structured treatment interruptions of antiretrovirals in acute HIV-1 infection.
ABSTRACT Latently infected resting memory CD4 T cells are thought to be the major reservoir that contributes to rebound viremia after cessation of antiretrovirals (ARVs). Commencing ARVs during primary HIV-1 infection (PHI) may limit the size of the latent pool and lead to improved control of viral replication during structured treatment interruption (STI).
Individuals with PHI (n = 59) were randomized to receive ARVs with or without hydroxyurea. After STI, a good response was defined as maintenance of HIV-1 RNA <5000 copies/mL for 24 weeks off therapy. In a detailed prospective virologic substudy (n = 19), integrated HIV-1 DNA, total HIV-1 DNA, and cell-associated HIV-1 unspliced (US) RNA were quantified using a real-time polymerase chain reaction assay.
The plasma HIV-1 RNA 12 weeks after the initiation of ARVs was significantly lower in good responders (n = 7) compared with poor responders (n = 12) (P = 0.005). There were no significant differences between good and poor responders in integrated HIV-1 DNA, HIV-1 DNA, and HIV-1 US RNA. Integrated HIV-1 DNA before initiation of ARVs was strongly correlated with plasma HIV-1 RNA at week 12 (P = 0.006, r = 0.81).
HIV-1 RNA measured 12 weeks after initiation of ARV was the only virologic variable associated with viral rebound after treatment interruption in PHI.
SourceAvailable from: Mauro Magnani[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The quantitative measurement of various HIV-1 DNA forms including total, unintegrated and integrated provirus play an increasingly important role in HIV-1 infection monitoring and treatment-related research. We report the development and validation of a SYBR Green real time PCR (TotUFsys platform) for the simultaneous quantification of total and extrachromosomal HIV-1 DNA forms in patients. This innovative technique makes it possible to obtain both measurements in a single PCR run starting from frozen blood employing the same primers and standard curve. Moreover, due to identical amplification efficiency, it allows indirect estimation of integrated level. To specifically detect 2-LTR a qPCR method was also developed.PLoS ONE 11/2014; 9(11):e111919. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0111919 · 3.53 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) persistence in latently infected resting memory CD4+ T-cells is the major barrier to HIV cure. Cellular histone deacetylases (HDACs) are important in maintaining HIV latency and histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) may reverse latency by activating HIV transcription from latently infected CD4+ T-cells. We performed a single arm, open label, proof-of-concept study in which vorinostat, a pan-HDACi, was administered 400 mg orally once daily for 14 days to 20 HIV-infected individuals on suppressive antiretroviral therapy (ART). The primary endpoint was change in cell associated unspliced (CA-US) HIV RNA in total CD4+ T-cells from blood at day 14. The study is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT01365065). Vorinostat was safe and well tolerated and there were no dose modifications or study drug discontinuations. CA-US HIV RNA in blood increased significantly in 18/20 patients (90%) with a median fold change from baseline to peak value of 7.4 (IQR 3.4, 9.1). CA-US RNA was significantly elevated 8 hours post drug and remained elevated 70 days after last dose. Significant early changes in expression of genes associated with chromatin remodeling and activation of HIV transcription correlated with the magnitude of increased CA-US HIV RNA. There were no statistically significant changes in plasma HIV RNA, concentration of HIV DNA, integrated DNA, inducible virus in CD4+ T-cells or markers of T-cell activation. Vorinostat induced a significant and sustained increase in HIV transcription from latency in the majority of HIV-infected patients. However, additional interventions will be needed to efficiently induce virus production and ultimately eliminate latently infected cells.PLoS Pathogens 10/2014; 10(10):e1004473. DOI:10.1371/journal.ppat.1004473 · 8.14 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi)3 are being evaluated in a "shock-and-kill" therapeutic approach to reverse human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV) latency from CD4(+) T cells. Using this approach, HDACi have induced HIV RNA synthesis in latently infected cells from some patients. The hope is that the increase in viral production will lead to killing of the infected cell either by the virus itself or by the patient's immune system - a "sterilizing cure". Although administered within the context of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), the infection of bystander cells remains a concern. In this study, we investigated the effect of HDACi (belinostat, givinostat, panobinostat, romidepsin, and vorinostat) on the productive infection of macrophages. We demonstrate that the HDACi tested do not alter the initial susceptibility of macrophages to HIV infection. However, we demonstrate that HDACi decrease HIV release from macrophages in a dose dependent manner (belinostat < givinostat < vorinostat < panobinostat < romidepsin) via degradation of intracellular HIV through the canonical autophagy pathway. This mechanism involves unc-51 like autophagy activating kinase 1 (ULK1) and the inhibition of the mammalian target of rapamycin (MTOR) that requires the formation of autophagosomes and maturation into autolysosomes in the absence of increased cell death. These data provide further evidence in support of a role for autophagy in the control of HIV infection and suggest that careful consideration of off-target effects will be essential if HDACi are to be a component of a multi-pronged approach to eliminate latently infected cells. Copyright © 2014, The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.Journal of Biological Chemistry 12/2014; DOI:10.1074/jbc.M114.605428 · 4.60 Impact Factor