The purpose of this review is to report on the vitamin D status and its relationship with bone health in individuals with gastrointestinal and liver disorders. In addition, recommendations regarding replacement and maintenance of optimal vitamin D stores, as well as the state of knowledge regarding its effect on the disease through its actions on the immune system, will be reviewed.
The scientific community has revised upward the serum levels of vitamin D considered optimal, and doses of vitamin D much larger than those currently recommended may be needed to maintain these levels, especially in individuals with gastrointestinal and liver disorders. The relationship between vitamin D and bone health in this population is controversial. The role of vitamin D in the regulation of the immune system continues to be elucidated.
Hypovitaminosis D is prevalent among individuals with gastrointestinal and liver disease. Although replacement and supplementation guidelines have not been well defined, practitioners should aim for a serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D level of at least 32 ng/ml. The contribution of vitamin D to the bone health of these individuals and its role in altering disease course through its actions on the immune system remain to be elucidated.
"Thus, it is not surprising that VDD is a common observation in patients with liver disease (Nair, 2010; Stokes et al., 2013). The association between vitamin D status and liver diseases is a crucial one; low vitamin D may indicate liver dysfunction and VDD might contribute to liver damage through increased inflammation and fibrosis (Bikle, 2007; Bouillon et al., 2008; Pappa et al., 2008; Petta et al., 2010). Putz-Bankuti et al. (2012) reported a significant association between vitamin D level and the degree of liver dysfunction. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: The interaction between vitamin D deficiency (VDD) and dysfunction of both the kidney and liver is still poorly understood in different health states of SCA. This study determined serum levels of vitamin D and indices of liver and renal function in adult sickle cell anaemia subjects.
Methods: Sixty subjects with sickle cell anaemia (30 in steady state [SSCA] and 30 in vaso-occlusive crisis [VOC]) and 30 apparently healthy individuals with HbAA genotype were recruited into this study. Standard methods were used for the determination of total protein, albumin, bilirubin, urinary creatinine and albumin while serum vitamin D was determined using ELISA. Differences between groups were determined using Student’s t-test or Man-Whitney U test as appropriate. P<0.05 was considered as statistically significant.
Results: Serum vitamin D was significantly lower in sickle cell anemia (SCA) subjects and the deficiency was more profound in VOC when compared with the control subjects. SCA subjects with vitamin D level <50 nmol/L had significantly higher levels of total bilirubin (TBIL) and conjugated bilirubin (CBIL) compared with those who had ≥50 nmol/L vitamin D level. No significant difference in vitamin D level between SCA subjects with once or less episodes of SCA crisis per year and SCA subjects with two or more episodes of SCA crisis per year although, the median vitamin D level was lower in the latter.
Conclusion: Vitamin D deficiency is more pronounced in SCA subjects in vaso-occlusive crisis and hyperbilirubinaemia was observed in SCA subjects with low serum vitamin D level.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Equations of linear piezoelectricity (with the quasistatic approximation) for the quartz plate and Maxwell’s equations for the electromagnetic field in the surrounding vacuum are solved for the thickness‐shear vibrations of rotated Y cut of quartz plate. For an AT‐cut plate vibrating near the thickness‐shear resonance excited by a uniform, lateral electric field of magnitude 1 V/m, the electromagnetic energy radiated from each face is about 0.13 μW/cm<sup>2</sup>. The radiated power is about 0.1 μW/cm<sup>2</sup> if the plate is excited by a shearing face traction which produces a strain of 10<sup>-</sup><sup>5</sup>. Present solution is compared in detail with Mindlin’s [Int. J. Solids Struct. 9, 697 (1972)] solution of equations of piezoelectromagnetism (without the quasistatic approximation) for the thickness‐shear vibrations excited by shearing face traction. It is found that the percent difference in radiated powers computed from these two solutions, due to the quasistatic approximation, is in the order of β<sup>2</sup>(=v̂<sup>2</sup>/ĉ<sup>2</sup>), where v̂ is the velocity of the x 1 ‐thickness‐shear wave, ĉ is the velocity of electromagnetic wave of E 3 propagating in the x 2 direction in quartz, and β≊10<sup>-</sup><sup>5</sup>.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A machine vision system designed to recognize Botswana license plates is presented. The system has an average processing time of about 2.41 seconds. The techniques used to perform the detection and recognition are: colour filtering; Niblack binarisation; blob selection; segmentation; template matching; neural networks; Euler number; positional checks
AFRICON, 2004. 7th AFRICON Conference in Africa; 10/2004
Jason R Miller, Karl W Dunn, Louis J Ciliberti, Rikhil D Patel, Brock A Swanson
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