Malignant diffuse-type tenosynovial giant cell tumors: a series of 7 cases comparing with 24 benign lesions with review of the literature.
ABSTRACT Malignant diffuse-type tenosynovial giant cell tumor (D-TSGCT), an unusual sarcoma with concurrent or previous benign D-TSGCTs, poses challenges to diagnosis and prognostication.
We described the radiologic, clinicopathologic, and immunophenotypical findings of 5 primary and 2 metachronous malignant D-TSGCTs and reviewed published cases to better delineate their morphologic spectrum and behavior. Twenty-four benign D-TSGCTs were also statically compared to analyze the diagnostic values of various variables.
The 7 malignant cases affected 4 females and 3 males aged 45 to 78 (mean, 60.9) years, which included 1 intraarticular and 6 extra-articular lesions. These tumors were 5 to 17 cm (mean, 9.4) and located within or near the large joints of extremities. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed expansile or infiltrative masses with frequent lobulation and heterogeneous signals. Histologically, areas of benign D-TSGCTs blended abruptly or gradually with frank sarcomas composed of pleomorphic, spindle, or enlarged oval cells, forming malignant fibrous histiocytomalike (n = 4), fibrosarcomatous (n = 1), myxosarcomatous (n = 1), or giant cell tumorlike (n = 1) patterns. One patient experienced recurrences twice, and another 3 developed metastases to the lymph nodes (n = 2), lung (n = 1), or vertebrae (n = 1), with 1 dying from disseminated diseases. An older age (P = 0.003), a larger size (P = 0.036), tumor necrosis (P < 0.001), atypical mitoses (P < 0.001), and Ki-67 overexpression (P < 0.001) appeared preferentially in malignant lesions, but these parameters had overlap between few benign and malignant tumors.
Malignant D-TSGCTs are a distinct sarcoma with considerable morphologic variability, metastatic propensity, and lethality. Altered architecture with anaplastic cells represents an important distinguishing feature, while abnormalities of other parameters should not be directly equated with malignancy.
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ABSTRACT: Fibrohistiocytic tumors (FHTs) in children and adolescents range from the benign fibrous histiocytoma, or dermatofibroma, to a variety of intermediate and malignant neoplasms, such as dermatofibrosarcoma protruberans and high-grade undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcoma (malignant fibrous histiocytoma). Those tumors as a group are comprised of fibroblasts, myofibroblasts, and histiocytes-dendritic cells with a variably prominent inflammatory infiltrate consisting of lymphocytes and eosinophils. Dendritic cells are also a major constituent of another group of neoplasms that include Langerhans cell histiocytosis, follicular and interdigitating cell sarcomas, and juvenile xanthogranuloma. These latter tumors are considered in this discussion for the sake of differential diagnosis and their possible histogenetic relationship to FHTs. Recent studies have suggested that the relationship between the fibroblast and histiocyte in the FHTs may reflect the intrinsic capacity to transdifferentiate from one to the other morphologic and functional state. The so-called "facultative fibroblast," as a cell with fibroblastic and histiocytic properties, was discussed in the context of the fibrous xanthoma 50 years ago. Possibly the entire histogenetic concept of FHTs should be reconsidered in light of current studies.Pediatric and Developmental Pathology 01/2012; 15(1 Suppl):181-210. DOI:10.2350/11-03-1001-PB.1 · 0.86 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Diffuse-type tenosynovial giant cell tumor (D-TGCT) is a relatively rare mesenchymal tumor. It is a locally aggressive but virtually non-metastasizing neoplasm, and thus regarded as benign. Only a few D-TGCTs with benign histology have been reported to metastasize. Here we report an extremely rare case of benign D-TGCT in which multiple metastases developed 9 years after surgery for the primary tumor. The present case suggests that conventional D-TGCT has the potential to form distant metastases, albeit exceptionally rarely, and that this probable implantation phenomenon can be managed conservatively.Human pathology 11/2014; 45(11). DOI:10.1016/j.humpath.2014.06.025 · 2.81 Impact Factor
- Targeted Oncology 02/2013; 9(1). DOI:10.1007/s11523-013-0267-8 · 3.46 Impact Factor