Histopathological evidence for an association of inflammation with ductal pin-like lesions but not with ductal adenocarcinoma in the prostate of the noble rat.
ABSTRACT Chronic inflammation may contribute to the development of prostate cancer. The goal of this study was to determine the possible association of prostatic inflammation, prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN)-like lesion, and prostate cancer, and to assess the androgen and estrogen dependency of the early steps of carcinogenesis.
Noble rats were treated with testosterone and estradiol implants for 13, 18, or 26 weeks. Hormone dependency of the lesions was studied in a subset of animals by removing hormone implants for 3 weeks after 15 weeks treatment time.
After treatment for 13 weeks, acute and chronic inflammation was found in the dorsolateral prostate lobes and both inflammation and PIN-like lesions were present in the periurethal area of the prostate in all animals (n = 8). Following hormone exposure for 18 and 26 weeks, inflammation in the prostate remained, and adenocarcinomas in the periurethal prostate area with no adjacent inflammation were observed in all 18 animals studied. When both hormone implants were removed after 15 weeks, PIN-like lesions progressed further to adenocarcinoma only in two of seven animals. When only the estradiol implants were removed, three of five animals developed adenocarcinomas.
Even though adenocarcinomas were not morphologically associated with inflammation, PIN-like lesions preceding adenocarcinoma were found in close association with inflammation, pointing towards a possible initiator role of inflammation in the early steps of prostatic carcinogenesis. Further, these results indicate that both androgens and estrogens together play a significant role in the induction of inflammation and prostatic cancer in this model.
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ABSTRACT: This study determined the incidence of prostate adenocarcinoma following long-term treatment of NBL and Sprague-Dawley rats with estradiol-17 beta or diethylstilbestrol (DES) plus testosterone and it defined the origin of these tumors. NBL and Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with two Silastic tubing implants (i.d. 1.6 mm, o.d. 3.2 mm) containing a 2 cm long filling of testosterone and one implant containing a 1 cm long filling of estradiol-17 beta or DES. Control animals received empty implants. Treated animals were killed when moribund and controls were killed at 91 (NBL) or 75 (Sprague-Dawley) weeks after initiation of treatment and accessory sex glands were sampled for histopathological examination of multiple step sections. Prostatic adenocarcinoma occurred in 100% of NBL rats after treatment with estradiol-17 beta or DES plus testosterone for 44 and 59 weeks (group means) respectively. Adenocarcinoma incidences were lower in Sprague-Dawley rats. The adenocarcinomas were small, microscopic, invasive tumors and they were spatially closely associated with the periurethral ducts of the dorsal, lateral and/or anterior (= coagulating gland) prostate, but never with the ducts of the ventral lobe and seminal vesicles. One adenocarcinoma was of uncertain origin. Duct-acinar dysplastic lesions occurred in the periphery of the dorsal and lateral prostate of all hormone-treated NBL and many Sprague-Dawley rats, but did not appear to give rise to carcinoma. Although some adenocarcinomas were contiguous with dysplastic ducts of the peripheral dorsolateral prostate, the main mass of these neoplasms was located in the periurethral area. Also, most adenocarcinomas were only connected with the periurethral ducts, in which atypical hyperplasia occurred following hormone treatment for 36 weeks or longer. Thus atypical hyperplasia of the periurethral prostate ducts, but not peripheral duct-acinar dysplasia, appeared to be the likely precursor of the induced carcinomas. Testosterone plus DES, but not estradiol-17 beta, induced marked dysplasia-like lesions in the acini of the ventral prostate of all NBL and many Sprague-Dawley rats. These lesions had progressed to carcinoma in situ (or adenoma) in 46% of NBL rats.Carcinogenesis 07/1995; 16(6):1311-7. · 5.64 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Neonatal estrogenization of the mouse with diethylstilbestrol resulted in time-of-exposure and dose-dependent inhibition of the growth of the prostatic lobes observed at the age of 2 mon. The critical time was the days 1-6 of postnatal life. In neonatally estrogenized (neoDES) mice, responses to 5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone in terms of nuclear 3H-thymidine labelling were altered concomitantly with the inhibition of growth and were in accordance with changes in the relative volumes of epithelium, glandular lumina, and interacinar stroma. Secondary estrogen treatment of neoDES mice with 17 beta-estradiol did not increase 3H-thymidine labelling in the prostate of control or neoDES mice. However, it induced squamous epithelial metaplasia in periurethral collecting ducts and proximal parts of coagulating glands of neoDES animals. In control mice only slight epithelial hyperplasia could be observed after similar treatment. Estrogen receptors, located immunocytochemically in nuclei of stromal cell, corresponded with the sites of increased estrogen sensitivity, observed as metaplastic transformation. When the neoDES animals aged, epithelial hyperplasia and dysplasia could be observed at distinct prostatic sites, ie, the periurethral collecting ducts and the coagulating glands and periurethral glands, and stromal inflammation become more extensive. Almost identical location of the epithelial changes and the altered estrogen response is suggestive of causal relationship.The Prostate 02/1991; 18(2):117-29. · 3.84 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Despite recent advances in vaccine technology, vaccines designed to elicit T cell-based anti-tumor immunity have only achieved partial success in the clinic. The underlying reason probably stems in part from the ability of tumors to repress cognate T cell responses, which appears to operate at two separate levels. In some cases, tumors engage a variety of immunosuppressive pathways that inhibit primed effector T cells from functioning when they enter the tumor microenvironment. Some of these immunosuppressive mechanisms include the production of cytokines such as TGF-beta and the recruitment or differentiation of regulatory T cells. In contrast, other types of tumors induce a systemic impairment in the function of tumor-reactive T cells (i.e., tolerance). Tolerance to tumor antigens can be mediated through the same mechanisms that induce T cell tolerance to normal self-antigens in order to avoid autoimmunity, and can develop not only towards differentiation antigens that are expressed on both tumors as well as on the normal tissues from which they derive, but can also develop rapidly towards tumor-specific antigens. Additionally, both naive and effector T cells are susceptible to tolerization, suggesting that tolerance can potentially dampen both the priming and effector phases of anti-tumor T cell responses. Certain hormones can influence both tumorigenesis as well as T cell function and tolerance, and thus hormonal therapies could potentially impact the efficacy of T cell-based therapies. An example of this type of interaction that will be discussed in detail is the relationship between androgens and prostate cancer.Current cancer drug targets 03/2007; 7(1):3-14. · 5.13 Impact Factor