Cohesin-dockerin interactions within and between Clostridium josui and Clostridium thermocellum: binding selectivity between cognate dockerin and cohesin domains and species specificity.
ABSTRACT The cellulosome components are assembled into the cellulosome complex by the interaction between one of the repeated cohesin domains of a scaffolding protein and the dockerin domain of an enzyme component. We prepared five recombinant cohesin polypeptides of the Clostridium thermocellum scaffolding protein CipA, two dockerin polypeptides of C. thermocellum Xyn11A and Xyn10C, four cohesin polypeptides of Clostridium josui CipA, and two dockerin polypeptides of C. josui Aga27A and Cel8A, and qualitatively and quantitatively examined the cohesin-dockerin interactions within C. thermocellum and C. josui, respectively, and the species specificity of the cohesin-dockerin interactions between these two bacteria. Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) analysis indicated that there was a certain selectivity, with a maximal 34-fold difference in the K(D) values, in the cohesin-dockerin interactions within a combination of C. josui, although this was not detected by qualitative analysis. Affinity blotting analysis suggested that there was at least one exception to the species specificity in the cohesin-dockerin interactions, although species specificity was generally conserved among the cohesin and dockerin polypeptides from C. thermocellum and C. josui, i.e. the dockerin polypeptides of C. thermocellum Xyn11A exceptionally bound to the cohesin polypeptides from C. josui CipA. SPR analysis confirmed this exceptional binding. We discuss the relationship between the species specificity of the cohesin-dockerin binding and the conserved amino acid residues in the dockerin domains.
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ABSTRACT: The interaction between the cohesin and dockerin modules serves to attach cellulolytic enzymes (carrying dockerins) to non-catalytic scaffoldin units (carrying multiple cohesins) in cellulosome, a multienzyme plant cell-wall degrading complex. This interaction is species-specific, for example, the enzyme-borne dockerin from Clostridium thermocellum bacteria binds to scaffoldin cohesins from the same bacteria but not to cohesins from Clostridium cellulolyticum and vice versa. We studied the role of interface residues, contributing either to affinity or specificity, by mutating these residues on the cohesin counterpart from C. thermocellum. The high affinity of the cognate interactions makes it difficult to evaluate the effect of these mutations by common methods used for measuring protein-protein interactions, especially when subtle discrimination between the mutants is needed. We described in this article an approach based on indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) that is able to detect differences in binding between the various cohesin mutants, whereas surface plasmon resonance and standard ELISA failed to distinguish between high-affinity interactions. To be able to calculate changes in energy of binding (ΔΔG) and dissociation constants (K(d) ) of mutants relative to wild type, a pre-equilibrium step was added to the standard indirect ELISA procedure. Thus, the cohesin-dockerin interaction under investigation occurs in solution rather than between soluble and immobilized proteins. Unbound dockerins are then detected through their interaction with immobilized cohesins. Because our method allows us to assess the effect of mutations on particularly tenacious protein-protein interactions much more accurately than do other prevalent methods used to measure binding affinity, we therefore suggest this approach as a method of choice for comparing relative binding in high-affinity interactions. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.Journal of Molecular Recognition 11/2012; 25(11):616-22. · 3.01 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: This work reports the successful design, construction, and application of multi-functional, self-assembling protein complex, termed xylanosomes. Using the architecture of cellulosomes as template, these structures were designed specifically for hemicellulose hydrolysis. Four different xylanosomes were developed, with up to three different hemicellulase activities combined into a single structure. Each xylanosome was composed of two native or chimeric hemicellulases and tested on wheat arabinoxylan or destarched corn bran for enzymatic hydrolysis. After 24-h incubation, soluble sugars released from arabinoxylan increased up to 30 % with xylanosomes containing a xylanase and bi-functional arabinofuranosidase/xylosidase over the corresponding free, unstructured enzymes. Additionally, xylanosomes with a xylanase and a ferulic acid esterase removed between 15 and 20 % more ferulic acid from wheat arabinoxylan than free enzymes. Furthermore, xylanosomes exhibited synergy with cellulases on destarched corn bran, suggesting a possible use of these nanostructures in cellulose hydrolysis.Applied biochemistry and biotechnology 05/2012; 167(3):395-411. · 1.94 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Thermophilic microorganisms are attractive candidates for conversion of lignocellulose to biofuels since they produce robust, effective, carbohydrate-degrading enzymes, and survive under harsh bioprocessing conditions that reflect their natural biotopes. However, no naturally occurring thermophile is known that can convert plant biomass into a liquid biofuel at rates, yields and titers that meet current bioprocessing and economic targets. Meeting those targets requires either metabolically engineering solventogenic thermophiles with additional biomass deconstruction enzymes, or engineering plant biomass degraders to produce a liquid biofuel. Thermostable enzymes from microorganisms isolated from diverse environments can serve as genetic reservoirs for both efforts. Because of the the sheer number of enzymes that are required to hydrolyze plant biomass to fermentable oligosaccharides, the latter strategy appears to be the preferred route and thus has received the most attention to date. Thermophilic plant biomass degraders fall into one of two categories: cellulosomal (i.e., multi-enzyme complexes) and non-cellulosomal (i.e., "free" enzyme systems). Plant biomass deconstructing thermophilic bacteria from the genera Clostridium (cellulosomal) and Caldicellulosiruptor (non-cellulosomal), which have potential as metabolic engineering platforms for producing biofuels, are compared and contrasted from a systems biology perspective. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.FEMS microbiology reviews 10/2013; · 10.96 Impact Factor