Parent-Controlled Analgesia in Children Undergoing Cleft Palate Repair

Department of Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.
Journal of Korean Medical Science (Impact Factor: 1.27). 03/2008; 23(1):122-5. DOI: 10.3346/jkms.2008.23.1.122
Source: PubMed


The aims of this study were to find an optimal basal infusion dose of fentanyl for parent-controlled analgesia (PrCA) in children undergoing cleft palate repair and the degree of parents' satisfaction with PrCA. Thirty consecutive children between 6 months and 2 yr of age were enrolled. At the end of surgery, a PrCA device with a basal infusion rate of 2 mL/hr and bolus of 0.5 mL with lockout time of 15 min was applied. Parents were educated in patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) devices, the Wong Baker face pain scoring system, and monitoring of adverse effects of fentanyl. Fentanyl was infused 0.3 microgram/kg/hr at first, and we obtained a predetermined fentanyl regimen by the response of the previous patient to a larger or smaller dose of fentanyl (0.1 microgram/kg/hr as the step size), using an up-and-down method. ED50 and ED95 by probit analysis were 0.63 microgram/kg/hr (95% confidence limits, 0.55-0.73 microgram/kg/hr) and 0.83 microgram/kg/hr (95% confidence limits, 0.73-1.47 microgram/kg/hr), respectively. Eighty seven percent of the parents were satisfied with participating in the PrCA modality. PrCA using fentanyl with a basal infusion rate of 0.63 microgram/kg/hr can be applied effectively for postoperative pain management in children undergoing cleft palate repair with a high level of parents' satisfaction.

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    • "When vomiting occurred more than twice in 30 minutes or patients were intolerant to vomiting, metoclopramide 0.15 mg/kg was administered as a rescue antiemetic. In addition, numeric scaled pain scores (0-5, Wong-Baker's facial expression scale [4,19]) were evaluated. Ketorolac 1 mg/kg was intravenously administered as a rescue analgesic on the basis of the requirements of the children's care giver or pain score of more than 3. "
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    ABSTRACT: For effective postoperative antiemetic management in pediatric moyamoya disease patients receiving fentanyl based postoperative analgesia, a multimodal approach has been recommended. The uncertain efficacy of ondansetron for pediatric neurosurgical patients or the possible antiemetic effect of small dose of propofol motivated us to evaluate the preventive effect of a subhypnotic dose of propofol combined with dexamethasone on postoperative vomiting (POV), especially during immediate postoperative periods. In a prospective observer-blind randomized controlled study, we compared dexamethasone 0.15 mg/kg alone (Group D) with dexamethasone combined with propofol of 0.5 mg/kg (Group DP) in 60 pediatric patients, aged 4-17 years, who underwent indirect bypass surgery and received fentanyl-based postoperative analgesia. Occurrence of vomiting and pain score (Wong-Baker facial score) and requirement of rescue analgesic and antiemetic were continually measured (0-2, 2-6, 6-12 and 12-24 postoperative hours). For statistical analysis, in addition to the Fisher's exact test, a generalized linear mixed model (GLMM) and the linear mixed model (LMM) for repeated measures were used for vomiting and pain scores, respectively. There was no statistical significance of POV incidence, requirement of rescue analgesic and pain score between the two groups at any measured intervals. The incidence of POV was 53.3% during 24 hours in both groups, and was especially 6.7% and 13.3% (P = 0.671) during 0-2 hr and 16.7% and 23.3% (P = 0.748) during 2-6 hr in group D and group DP, respectively. A small dose of propofol combined with dexamethasone appears ineffective to preventing POV in pediatric moyamoya patients receiving continuous fentanyl infusion.
    Korean journal of anesthesiology 02/2013; 64(2):127-32. DOI:10.4097/kjae.2013.64.2.127
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    ABSTRACT: Patient Controlled Analgesia is a useful technic to deliver morphine analgesia via a programmable pump: the patient himself choose to self-administer a bolus dose (usually morphine); the dosage is calculated and prescribed according to the level of pain, limits of dose and period of interdiction are planned. After initial bolus to decrease severe pain (titration), the patient from the age of 6 years can manage his analgesia. This method of administration of the analgesic allows to adapting at best the posology of morphine to the level of pain and has a high safety level. A continuous flow can be prescribed if the pain is severe, but requires a greater level of surveillance of the essential parameters: breath and sedation, in order to avoid any overdose. As for any morphine analgesia, the unwanted effects must be prevented or treated. If the child cannot handle the pump (young age, handicap, tiredness) the nurse or sometimes the relative can activate the delivery of bolus after a specific training. The education of the relatives (parents) and the child is essential. This simple and efficacious method of analgesia requires an adequate training of the nursing staff.
    Archives de Pédiatrie 05/2010; 17(5):566-577. DOI:10.1016/j.arcped.2010.02.013 · 0.41 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This prospective randomized controlled study was undertaken to evaluate the efficacy of palatal block i.e. blocking of naso palatine, greater and also lesser palatine nerves in children with cleft palate undergoing palatoplasty by evaluating its effects on intraoperative anesthetic requirement, postoperative analgesia and parental satisfaction. Forty-five pediatric patients aged below five undergoing cleft palate repair were randomly allocated to three groups of 15 each. After tracheal intubation, Group NB received no block for control, group S received 0.5 ml of normal saline and group B received 0.5 ml of 0.25% bupivacaine for palatal block. Postoperative pain score, the time to first demand of analgesia and number of rescue analgesic demands were noted. Finally, the parental satisfaction was graded. The block had no anesthetic sparing effect. The mean pain scores were significantly lower in patients who received block than in the group NB. The mean area under curve for FLACC score in group NB was 29 with 95% CI of 25-32, group S was 15 with 95% CI of 8.9-22.3 and in group B, it was 10 with 95% CI of 6-14. The time to first demand of analgesia was 6 [4.5-6] h in group NB, 18 [6-18] h in group S and 18 [18-18] h in group B (P-0.000). The number of demands of rescue analgesia was significantly less in group B 0 [0-0.25], 0 [0-2] in S group compared to group NB 3 [3-3] (P-0.000). The parental satisfaction was good in patients who received block and poor in group NB. Palatal block is technically simple, safe and effectively provides postoperative analgesia with good parental satisfaction. Injection of saline also produced palatal nerve block; however, the effect was not consistent.
    Pediatric Anesthesia 08/2010; 20(8):727-33. DOI:10.1111/j.1460-9592.2010.03347.x · 1.85 Impact Factor
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