Voxel-Based Morphometry Study of Gray Matter Abnormalities in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

Department of Psychiatry, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.
Journal of Korean Medical Science (Impact Factor: 1.25). 03/2008; 23(1):24-30. DOI: 10.3346/jkms.2008.23.1.24
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT To examine regional abnormalities in the brains of patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), we assessed the gray matter (GM) density using voxel-based morphometry (VBM). We compared magnetic resonance images (MRIs) acquired from 71 OCD patients and 71 age- and gender-matched normal controls and examined the relationship between GM density and various clinical variables in OCD patients. We also investigated whether GM density differs among the subtypes of OCD compared to healthy controls. We detected significant reduction of GM in the inferior frontal gyrus, the medial frontal gyrus, the insula, the cingulate gyrus, and the superior temporal gyrus of OCD patients. A significant increase in GM density was observed in the postcentral gyrus, the thalamus, and the putamen. Some of these regions, including the insular and postcentral gyrus, were also associated with the severity of obsessive- compulsive symptoms. These findings indicate that the frontal-subcortical circuitry is dysfunctional in OCD, and suggest that the parietal cortex may play a role in the pathophysiology of this disease.

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Available from: Jung-Seok Choi, Jan 04, 2014
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    • "Brain regions most consistently found to be abnormal in humans with OCD include the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), insula, thalamus , corpus callosum, and striatum (Song et al., 2011; Zarei et al., 2011). ACC abnormalities include reduced gray matter volumes and densities (Carmona et al., 2007; Gilbert et al., 2008; Matsumoto et al., 2010b; Rotge et al., 2010; Valente et al., 2005; Yoo et al., 2008). Fractional anisotropy abnormalities have been found in the corpus callosum (den Braber et al., 2011; Garibotto et al., 2010; Nakamae et al., 2011; Yoo et al., 2007; Zarei et al., 2011). "
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    ABSTRACT: Obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) is a debilitating condition, the etiology of which is poorly understood, in part because it often remains undiagnosed/untreated for a decade or more. Characterizing the etiology of compulsive disorders in animal models may facilitate earlier diagnosis and intervention. Doberman pinschers have a high prevalence of an analogous behavioral disorder termed canine compulsive disorder (CCD), which in many cases responds to treatments used for OCD. Thus, studies of CCD may help elucidate the etiology of compulsive disorders. We compared brain structure in Dobermans with CCD (N=8) and unaffected controls (N=8) to determine whether CCD is associated with structural abnormalities comparable to those reported in humans with OCD. We obtained 3 Tesla magnetic resonance structural and diffusion images from anesthetized Dobermans and subjected images to segmentation, voxel based morphometry, and diffusion tensor analyses. CCD dogs exhibited higher total brain and gray matter volumes and lower dorsal anterior cingulate cortex and right anterior insula gray matter densities. CCD dogs also had higher fractional anisotropy in the splenium of the corpus callosum, the degree of which correlated with the severity of the behavioral phenotype. Together, these findings suggest that CCD is associated with structural abnormalities paralleling those identified in humans with OCD. Accordingly, the CCD model, which has a number of advantages over other animal models of OCD, may assist in establishing the neuroanatomical basis for and etiology of compulsive disorders, which could lead to earlier diagnosis of and new treatments for humans and animals with these disorders.
    Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry 04/2013; 45. DOI:10.1016/j.pnpbp.2013.04.002 · 4.03 Impact Factor
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    • "Nevertheless, locations and directions of the changes in the OFC were heterogeneous across studies. In fact, four investigations (Kim et al., 2001; Valente et al., 2005; Christian et al., 2008; Szeszko et al., 2008) reported increased volume and five (Pujol et al., 2004; Yoo et al., 2008; Lá zaro et al., 2009; van den Heuvel et al., 2009; Togao et al., 2010) reported decreased volumes. "
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    ABSTRACT: The most widely accepted model of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) assumes brain abnormalities in the “affective circuit”, mainly consisting of volume reduction in the medial orbitofrontal, anterior cingulate and temporolimbic cortices, and tissue expansion in the striatum and thalamus. The advent of whole-brain, voxel-based morphometry (VBM) has provided increasing evidence that regions outside the “affective” orbitofronto-striatal circuit are involved in OCD. Nevertheless, potential confounds from the different image analysis methods, as well as other factors, such as patients' medication and comorbidity status, may limit generalization of results.
    Cortex 02/2013; 62. DOI:10.1016/j.cortex.2013.01.016 · 6.04 Impact Factor
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    • "With regard to child and adolescent OCD, the main results of this review reveal conflicting findings, as detailed above. In comparing volumetric findings in childhood OCD with adult OCD, there are a number of similarities that deserve mention including increased basal ganglia gray matter volumes (especially in the putamen; Pujol et al., 2004; Yoo et al., 2008) and decreased gray matter volumes bilaterally in the frontal lobe and ACC (Yoo et al., 2008). These findings have not been evident across all studies . "
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives: Structural magnetic resonance imaging (sMRI) studies of anxiety disorders in children and adolescents are limited. Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) have been best studied in this regard. We systematically reviewed structural neuroimaging findings in pediatric PTSD and OCD. Methods: The literature was reviewed for all sMRI studies examining volumetric parameters using PubMed, ScienceDirect, and PsychInfo databases, with no limit on the time frame of publication. Nine studies in pediatric PTSD and six in OCD were suitable for inclusion. Results: Volumetric findings were inconsistent in both disorders. In PTSD, findings suggest increased as well as decreased volumes of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and corpus callosum; whilst in OCD studies indicate volumetric increase of the putamen, with inconsistent findings for the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and frontal regions. Conclusions: Methodological differences may account for some of this inconsistency and additional volume-based studies in pediatric anxiety disorders using more uniform approaches are needed.
    Frontiers in Psychology 12/2012; 3:568. DOI:10.3389/fpsyg.2012.00568 · 2.80 Impact Factor
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