Voxel-Based Morphometry Study of Gray Matter Abnormalities in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

Department of Psychiatry, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.
Journal of Korean Medical Science (Impact Factor: 1.25). 03/2008; 23(1):24-30. DOI: 10.3346/jkms.2008.23.1.24
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT To examine regional abnormalities in the brains of patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), we assessed the gray matter (GM) density using voxel-based morphometry (VBM). We compared magnetic resonance images (MRIs) acquired from 71 OCD patients and 71 age- and gender-matched normal controls and examined the relationship between GM density and various clinical variables in OCD patients. We also investigated whether GM density differs among the subtypes of OCD compared to healthy controls. We detected significant reduction of GM in the inferior frontal gyrus, the medial frontal gyrus, the insula, the cingulate gyrus, and the superior temporal gyrus of OCD patients. A significant increase in GM density was observed in the postcentral gyrus, the thalamus, and the putamen. Some of these regions, including the insular and postcentral gyrus, were also associated with the severity of obsessive- compulsive symptoms. These findings indicate that the frontal-subcortical circuitry is dysfunctional in OCD, and suggest that the parietal cortex may play a role in the pathophysiology of this disease.

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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to investigate macrostructural and microstructural brain changes in patients with pure obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) and to examine the relationship between brain structure and neuropsychological deficits. 20 patients with OCD underwent a comprehensive neuropsychological battery. A combined voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) analysis was used to capture gray matter (GM) and white matter changes in OCD patients as compared to pair-matched healthy volunteers. Multiple regression designs explored the relationship between cognition and neuroimaging parameters. OCD patients had increased mean diffusivity (MD) in GM nodes of the orbitofronto-striatal loop (left dorsal anterior cingulate [Z = 3.67, P < 0.001] left insula [Z = 3.35 P < 0.001] left thalamus [Z = 3.59, P < 0.001] left parahippocampal gyrus [Z = 3.77 P < 0.001]) and in lateral frontal and posterior associative cortices (right frontal operculum [Z = 3.42 P < 0.001], right temporal lobe [Z = 3.79 P < 0.001] left parietal lobe [Z = 3.91 P < 0.001]). Decreased fractional anisotropy (FA) was detected in intrahemispheric (left superior longitudinal fasciculus [Z = 4.07 P < 0.001]) and interhemispheric (body of corpus callosum [CC, Z = 4.42 P < 0.001]) bundles. Concurrently, the semantic fluency score, a measure of executive control processes, significantly predicted OCD diagnosis (Odds Ratio = 1.37; 95% Confidence Intervals = 1.09-1.73; P = 0.0058), while variation in performance was correlated with increased MD in left temporal (Z = 4.25 P < 0.001) and bilateral parietal regions (left Z = 3.94, right Z = 4.19 P < 0.001), and decreased FA in the right posterior corona radiata (Z = 4.07 P < 0.001) and the left corticospinal tract (Z = 3.95 P < 0.001). The reported deficit in executive processes and the underlying microstructural alterations may qualify as behavioral and biological markers of OCD.
    03/2014; 4(2):261-77. DOI:10.1002/brb3.212
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    ABSTRACT: The aims of this study were to identify gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM) volume abnormalities in pediatric obsessive-compulsive patients, to examine their relationship between these abnormalities and the severity of disorder, and to explore whether they could be explained by the different symptom dimensions. Methods: 62 child and adolescent OCD patients (11-18 years old) and 46 healthy subjects of the same gender and similar age and estimated intellectual quotient were assessed by means of psychopathological scales and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Axial three-dimensional T1-weighted images were obtained in a 3T scanner and analyzed using optimized voxel-based morphometry (VBM). Results: Compared with healthy controls, OCD patients showed lower white matter (WM) volume in the left dorsolateral and cingulate regions involving the superior and middle frontal gyri and anterior cingulate gyrus (t=4.35, p=0.049 FWE (family wise error)-corrected). There was no significant correlation between WM and the severity of obsessive-compulsive symptomatology. There were no regions with lower gray matter (GM) volume in OCD patients than in controls. Compared with healthy controls, only the "harm/checking" OCD dimension showed a cluster with a near significant decrease in WM volume in the right superior temporal gyrus extending into the insula (t=5.61, p=.056 FWE-corrected). Conclusion: The evidence suggests that abnormalities in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex, temporal and limbic regions play a central role in the pathophysiology of OCD. Moreover, regional brain volumes in OCD may vary depending on specific OCD symptom dimensions, indicating the clinical heterogeneity of the condition.
    Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry 06/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.pnpbp.2014.06.009 · 4.03 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: White matter abnormalities have long been suspected in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) but the available evidence has been inconsistent. We conducted the first multimodal meta-analysis of white matter volume (WMV) and fractional anisotropy (FA) studies in OCD. All voxel-wise studies comparing WMV or FA between patients with OCD and healthy controls in the PubMed, ScienceDirect, Google Scholar, Web of Knowledge and Scopus databases were retrieved. Manual searches were also conducted and authors were contacted soliciting additional data. Thirty-four datasets were identified, of which 22 met inclusion criteria (five of them unpublished; comprising 537 adult and pediatric patients with OCD and 575 matched healthy controls). Whenever possible, raw statistical parametric maps were also obtained from the authors. Peak and raw WMV and FA data were combined using novel multimodal meta-analytic methods implemented in effect-size signed differential mapping (ES-SDM). Patients with OCD showed widespread white matter abnormalities, but findings were particularly robust in the anterior midline tracts (crossing between anterior parts of cingulum bundle and body of corpus callosum), which showed both increased WMV and decreased FA, possibly suggesting an increase of fiber crossing in these regions. This finding was also observed when the analysis was limited to adult participants, and especially pronounced in samples with a higher proportion of medicated patients. Therefore, patients with OCD may have widespread white matter abnormalities, particularly evident in anterior midline tracts, though these changes might be, at least in part, attributable to the effects of therapeutic drugs.Neuropsychopharmacology accepted article preview online, 10 January 2014. doi:10.1038/npp.2014.5.
    Neuropsychopharmacology: official publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology 01/2014; DOI:10.1038/npp.2014.5 · 7.83 Impact Factor

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