Amount of Time Spent in Sedentary Behaviors in the United States, 2003-2004

Institute for Medicine and Public Health, Department of Medicine, School of Medicine, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN 37232-1738, USA.
American journal of epidemiology (Impact Factor: 5.23). 05/2008; 167(7):875-81. DOI: 10.1093/aje/kwm390
Source: PubMed


Sedentary behaviors are linked to adverse health outcomes, but the total amount of time spent in these behaviors in the United
States has not been objectively quantified. The authors evaluated participants from the 2003–2004 National Health and Nutrition
Examination Survey aged ≥6 years who wore an activity monitor for up to 7 days. Among 6,329 participants with at least one
10-hour day of monitor wear, the average monitor-wearing time was 13.9 hours/day (standard deviation, 1.9). Overall, participants
spent 54.9% of their monitored time, or 7.7 hours/day, in sedentary behaviors. The most sedentary groups in the United States
were older adolescents and adults aged ≥60 years, and they spent about 60% of their waking time in sedentary pursuits. Females
were more sedentary than males before age 30 years, but this pattern was reversed after age 60 years. Mexican-American adults
were significantly less sedentary than other US adults, and White and Black females were similarly sedentary after age 12
years. These data provide the first objective measure of the amount of time spent in sedentary behavior in the US population
and indicate that Americans spend the majority of their time in behaviors that expend very little energy.

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    • "Engaging in regular physical activity (PA) reduces the risk of chronic disease, enhances mental health and improves quality of life [1]. Yet in the past two decades, physical inactivity has continued to rise in the US [2] [3]. In 2013, only 20.8% of adults met the national recommendations for both aerobic activity and strength training [4]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Medical professionals serve as influential sources of information and guidance for their patients. Medical school may be an opportune time to provide future physicians with training in physical activity (PA) so that it can be more effectively addressed in clinical practice. Methods: To assess the inclusion and amount of PA training in US medical school curricula, we attempted to conduct structured interviews with the program directors of the 171 accredited US medical education programs in the spring of 2013. Results: Seventy-four schools (allopathic, n = 64; osteopathic, n = 10) completed the structured interviews. Fifty-eight programs (78.4%) reported having PA training included as a part of their curriculum. Thirty-five (61.4%) and 25 (43.9%) programs included instruction on national aerobic and strength training guidelines, respectively. Thirty-one programs (56.4%) felt that they offered a sufficient level of PA-related training for their students to successfully counsel their patients in the future. Over the 4 years of medical school, an average of 8.1 (± 9.8) h of mandatory PA training was offered. Conclusion: Though many medical schools report providing some level of PA content, the time dedicated for this training is still low in comparison to other topics, such as nutrition education, which are featured more prominently. New and innovative ideas are needed for the integration of more, higher quality PA training for our next generation of medical practitioners.
    The Physician and sportsmedicine 09/2015; DOI:10.1080/00913847.2015.1084868 · 1.09 Impact Factor
    • "WM has been shown to increase throughout adulthood, peaking at around the age of 40–60 years, followed by an accelerated decline starting around age 60 [14] [19]. PA is also known to be negatively associated with age [21] [22] and sedentary behavior (SB) is known to be positively associated with age [23]. This trend has been shown to start in the forties [22]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Many studies have examined the hypothesis that greater participation in physical activity (PA) is associated with less brain atrophy. Here we examine, in a sub-sample (n=352, mean age 79.1 years) of the Age, Gene/Environment Susceptibility-Reykjavik Study cohort, the association of the baseline and 5-year change in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-derived volumes of gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM) to active and sedentary behavior (SB) measured at the end of the 5-year period by a hip-worn accelerometer for seven consecutive days. More GM (β=0.11; p=0.044) and WM (β=0.11; p=0.030) at baseline was associated with more total physical activity (TPA). Also, when adjusting for baseline values, the 5-year change in GM (β=0.14; p=0.0037) and WM (β=0.11; p=0.030) was associated with TPA. The 5-year change in WM was associated with SB (β= -0.11; p=0.0007). These data suggest that objectively measured PA and SB late in life are associated with current and prior cross-sectional measures of brain atrophy, and that change over time is associated with PA and SB in expected directions.
    Behavioural brain research 09/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.bbr.2015.09.005 · 3.03 Impact Factor
    • "Physical activity data will be collected Mondays through Thursdays. Cutpoint thresholds associated with moderate and vigorous activity will be used to distill the physical activity intensity levels [66] and sedentary behavior [67]. Children will be considered to have a valid day of accelerometer data if their total daily wear time (off time minus on time) is equal to or greater than 60 minutes [8] [9] [68]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose . The aim of this study was to evaluate an intervention designed to assist after-school programs (ASPs) in meeting snack nutrition policies that specify that a fruit or vegetable be served daily and sugar-sweetened beverages/foods and artificially flavored foods eliminated. Design . The study used a 1-year group-randomized controlled trial. Setting . The study took place in ASPs operating in South Carolina, United States. Subjects . Twenty ASPs serving over 1700 children were recruited, match-paired postbaseline on enrollment size and days fruits/vegetables were served per week, and randomized to either intervention (n = 10) or control (n = 10) groups. Intervention . The study used Strategies To Enhance Practice for Healthy Eating (STEPs-HE), a multistep adaptive intervention framework that assists ASP leaders and staff to serve snacks that meet nutrition policies while maintaining cost. Measures . Direct observation of snacks served and consumed and monthly snack expenditures as determined by receipts were used. Analysis . The study used nonparametric and mixed-model repeated measures. Results . By postassessment, intervention ASPs increased serving of fruits/vegetables to 3.9 ± 2.1 vs. 0.7 ± 1.7 d/wk and decreased serving sugar-sweetened beverages to 0.1 ± 0.7 vs. 1.8 ± 2.4 d/wk and sugar-sweetened foods to 0.3 ± 1.1 vs. 2.7 ± 2.5 d/wk compared to controls, respectively. Cost of snacks increased by $0.02/snack in the intervention ASPs ($0.36 to $0.38) compared to a $0.01 per snack decrease in the control group ($0.39 to $0.38). Across both assessments and groups, 80% to 100% of children consumed FVs. Conclusions . The STEPs-HE intervention can assist ASPs in meeting nationally endorsed nutrition policies with marginal increases in cost.
    American journal of health promotion: AJHP 07/2015; DOI:10.4278/ajhp.141001-QUAN-486 · 2.37 Impact Factor
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