Antimicrobial surface functionalisation of plastic catheters by silver nanoparticles. J Antimicrob Chemoth 61(4): 869-876

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Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy (Impact Factor: 5.31). 04/2008; 61(4):869-76. DOI: 10.1093/jac/dkn034
Source: PubMed


To test the antimicrobial activity and evaluate the risk of systemic toxicity of novel catheters coated with silver nanoparticles.
Catheters were coated with silver using AgNO3, a surfactant and N,N,N ',N '-tetramethylethylenediamine as a reducing agent. Particle size was determined by electron microscopy. Silver release from the catheters was determined in vitro and in vivo using radioactive silver ((110m)Ag+). Activity on microbial growth and biofilm formation was evaluated against pathogens most commonly involved in catheter-related infections, and the risk for systemic toxicity was estimated by measuring silver biodistribution in mice implanted subcutaneously with (110 m)Ag+-coated catheters.
The coating method yielded a thin ( approximately 100 nm) layer of nanoparticles of silver on the surface of the catheters. Variations in AgNO3 concentration translated into proportional changes in silver coating (from 0.1 to 30 microg/cm(2)). Sustained release of silver was demonstrated over a period of 10 days. Coated catheters showed significant in vitro antimicrobial activity and prevented biofilm formation using Escherichia coli, Enterococcus, Staphylococcus aureus, coagulase-negative staphylococci, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Candida albicans. Approximately 15% of the coated silver eluted from the catheters in 10 days in vivo, with predominant excretion in faeces (8%), accumulation at the implantation site (3%) and no organ accumulation (< or = 0.1%).
A method to coat plastic catheters with bioactive silver nanoparticles was developed. These catheters are non-toxic and are capable of targeted and sustained release of silver at the implantation site. Because of their demonstrated antimicrobial properties, they may be useful in reducing the risk of infectious complications in patients with indwelling catheters.

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Available from: Jean-Baptiste Roullet, Jun 08, 2015
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    • "Material surface modifications can be performed in different ways in order to limit the establishment of microorganisms on the surface, to slow down their growth and thus to delay the biofilm formation (Roe et al. 2008). The coating approach by impregnation is today, the most developed one to design antimicrobial materials and the simplest one among all the technologies allowing a molecule release (Zhang et al. 2011). "
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    ABSTRACT: Carvacrol, an aromatic terpenic compound, known to be antimicrobial was grafted onto gold surfaces via two strategies based on newly-synthesized cross-linkers involving either an ester bond which can be cleaved by microbial esterases, or a covalent ether link. Surface functionalizations were characterized at each step by reflection absorption infrared spectroscopy (RAIRS). The two functionalized gold samples both led to a loss of culturability of the yeast Candida albicans, higher than 65%, indicating that the activity of the freshly-designed surfaces was probably due to still covalently immobilized carvacrol. On the contrary, when a phenyl group replaced the terpenic moiety, the yeast culturability increased by about 30%, highlighting the specific activity of carvacrol grafted on the surfaces. Confocal microscopy analyses showed that the mode of action of the functionalized surfaces with the ester or the ether of carvacrol was, in both cases, fungicidal and not anti-adhesive. Finally, this study shows that covalently immobilization of terpenic compounds can be used to design promising antimicrobial surfaces.
    AMB Express 12/2015; 5(1). DOI:10.1186/s13568-014-0091-2
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    • "The antifungal effect of silver nanoparticles has been the subject topic of several studies with emphasis on strains of Candida spp. (Falletta et al., 2008, Roe et al., 2008 and Panáček et al., 2009). "
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    ABSTRACT: Electrospun cellulose acetate composites containing silver and copper nanoparticles supported in sepiolite and mesoporous silica were prepared and tested as fungistatic membranes against the fungus Aspergillus niger. The nanoparticles were in the 3–50 nm range for sepiolite supported materials and limited by the size of mesopores (5–8 nm) in the case of mesoporous silica. Sepiolite and silica were well dispersed within the fibers, with larger aggregates in the micrometer range, and allowed a controlled release of metals to create a fungistatic environment. The effect was assessed using digital image analysis to evaluate fungal growth rate and fluorescence readings using a viability stain. The results showed that silver and copper nanomaterials significantly impaired the growth of fungi when the spores were incubated either in direct contact with particles or included in cellulose acetate composite membranes. The fungistatic effect took place on germinating spores before hyphae growth conidiophore formation. After 24 h the cultures were separated from fungistatic materials and showed growth impairment only due to the prior exposure. Growth reduction was important for all the particles and membranes with respect to non-exposed controls. The effect of copper and silver loaded materials was not significantly different from each other with average reductions around 70% for bare particles and 50% for membranes. Copper on sepiolite was particularly efficient with a decrease of metabolic activity of up to 80% with respect to controls. Copper materials induced rapid maturation and conidiation with fungi splitting in sets of subcolonies. Metal-loaded nanomaterials acted as reservoirs for the controlled release of metals. The amount of silver or copper released daily by composite membranes represented roughly 1% of their total load of metals. Supported nanomaterials encapsulated in nanofibers allow formulating active membranes with high antifungal performance at the same time minimizing the risk of nanoparticle release into the environment.
    Science of The Total Environment 10/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2015.10.072 · 4.10 Impact Factor
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    • "The increase in permeability of the cell membranes allows the AgNPs to penetrate the cell and cause cell death by breaking the DNA (Tamboli and Lee, 2013). Research on antibacterial AGNPS cytotoxic mechanism is speculative , some authors as: Marta et al., 2014; Ajitha et al., 2014; Roe et al., 2008; Cao et al., 2011; Zhao et al., 2012; Sharma et al., 2013; Mocanu et al., 2014; Lu et al., 2014 and Ahluwalia et al., 2014. They have reported that more research needs to continue to make this subject to understand the mechanisms. "
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    DESCRIPTION: Existe un gran ecosistema microbiano en la cavidad oral donde Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) se puede encontrar, causando patologías orales tales como quelitis angular, las paperas y la mucositis estafilocócica. Estas enfermedades producidas por S. aureus en la cavidad oral son consecuencia de los factores de virulencia, toxinas y multiresistencia a los antibióticos, lo que contribuye a la infección. La colonización en la cavidad oral por S. aureus en pacientes sanos es de 24% a 36%. Sin embargo, la incidencia aumenta a 48% en pacientes con prótesis debido a la formación de biofilms en la superficie de las dentaduras postizas. Actualmente, no existe ningún tratamiento para infecciones orales sin el uso de antibióticos. Investigaciones recientes indican que las nanopartículas de plata (AgNPs) son un material o estrategia para eliminar S. aureus debido a su efecto antibacteriano. Sin embargo, el mecanismo del efecto inhibidor de los iones de Ag sobre S. aureus es sólo parcialmente conocida y muy poco se ha informado. Por lo tanto, el propósito de la presente revisión sistemática es determinar las estrategias y retos de la utilización de biomateriales antimicrobianos con AgNPs frente a las infecciones orales de S. aureus.
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