Phenylalanine-508 mediates a cytoplasmic.Äìmembrane domain contact in the CFTR 3D structure crucial to assembly and channel function

Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27599, USA.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (Impact Factor: 9.67). 04/2008; 105(9):3256-61. DOI: 10.1073/pnas.0800254105
Source: PubMed


Deletion of phenylalanine-508 (Phe-508) from the N-terminal nucleotide-binding domain (NBD1) of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), a member of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter family, disrupts both its folding and function and causes most cystic fibrosis. Most mutant nascent chains do not pass quality control in the ER, and those that do remain thermally unstable, only partially functional, and are rapidly endocytosed and degraded. Although the lack of the Phe-508 peptide backbone diminishes the NBD1 folding yield, the absence of the aromatic side chain is primarily responsible for defective CFTR assembly and channel gating. However, the site of interdomain contact by the side chain is unknown as is the high-resolution 3D structure of the complete protein. Here we present a 3D structure of CFTR, constructed by molecular modeling and supported biochemically, in which Phe-508 mediates a tertiary interaction between the surface of NBD1 and a cytoplasmic loop (CL4) in the C-terminal membrane-spanning domain (MSD2). This crucial cytoplasmic membrane interface, which is dynamically involved in regulation of channel gating, explains the known sensitivity of CFTR assembly to many disease-associated mutations in CL4 as well as NBD1 and provides a sharply focused target for small molecules to treat CF. In addition to identifying a key intramolecular site to be repaired therapeutically, our findings advance understanding of CFTR structure and function and provide a platform for focused biochemical studies of other features of this unique ABC ion channel.

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Available from: Andrei A Aleksandrov,
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    • "CFTR is also a member of the MRP (multidrug-related protein) group, which is structurally related to the multidrug resistance family of proteins. The structure of CFTR has been modeled based, in part, on the structure of Sav1866 [1]. There are two membrane spanning domains (MSD1 and MSD2) each composed of six transmembrane helices (TMH1–TMH12). "
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    ABSTRACT: The cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) is an anion channel composed of 1480 amino acids. The major mutation responsible for cystic fibrosis results in loss of amino acid residue, F508, (F508del). Loss of F508 in CFTR alters the folding pathway resulting in endoplasmic reticulum associated degradation (ERAD). This study investigates the role of synonymous codon in the expression of CFTR and CFTR F508del in human HEK293 cells. DNA encoding the open reading frame (ORF) for CFTR containing synonymous codon replacements, were expressed using a heterologous vector integrated into the genome. The results indicate that the codon usage greatly affects the expression of CFTR. While the promoter strength driving expression of the ORFs was largely unchanged and the mRNA half-lives were unchanged, the steady state levels of the mRNA varied by as much as 30 fold. Experiments support that this apparent inconsistency is attributed to exon junction complex independent nonsense mediated decay. The ratio of CFTR/mRNA indicates that mRNA containing native codons was more efficient in expressing mature CFTR as compared to mRNA containing synonymous high expression codons. However, when F508del CFTR was expressed after codon optimization, a greater percentage of the protein escaped ERAD resulting in considerable levels of mature F508del CFTR on the plasma membrane, which showed channel activity. These results indicate that for CFTR, codon usage has an effect on mRNA levels, protein expression and likely, for F508del CFTR, chaperone assisted folding pathway. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
    Journal of Molecular Biology 02/2015; 427(6). DOI:10.1016/j.jmb.2015.02.003 · 4.33 Impact Factor
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    • "CH1 and CH2 contact directly the NBDs, thereby forming the transition interface between the TMD and the NBDs. CH2 interacts with the Q-loop of the opposite half-transporter in trans [65]. CH1 senses the nucleotide binding status during the catalytic cycle by contacting the Q-loop of both NBDs [66] (in cis and in trans) in the outward-facing conformation, whereas it interacts with the own NBD in cis in the inward-facing conformation [35] [66] [67]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Protein homeostasis results in a steady supply of peptides, which are further degraded to fuel protein synthesis or metabolic needs of the cell. In higher vertebrates, a small fraction of the resulting peptidome, however, is translocated into the ER lumen by the transporter associated with antigen processing (TAP). Antigenic peptides are guided to major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC I) molecules and are finally displayed on the cell surface, where they mount an adaptive immune response against viral infected or malignantly transformed cells. Here, we review the structural organization and the molecular mechanism of this specialized antigen translocon. We discuss how the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter TAP communicates and cooperates within the multi-component peptide-loading machinery, mediating the proper assembly and editing of kinetically stable peptide/MHC I complexes. In light of its important role within the MHC I antigen processing pathway, TAP is a prime target for viral immune evasion strategies, and we summarize how this antigen translocation machinery is sabotaged by viral factors. Finally, we compare TAP with other ABC systems that facilitate peptide translocation.
    Journal of Molecular Biology 09/2014; 427(5). DOI:10.1016/j.jmb.2014.09.006 · 4.33 Impact Factor
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    • "In the most commonly occurring F508del mutation, which accounts for nearly two thirds of mutated alleles in CF patients, native NBD-CL4 and CL1 interaction is disrupted, compromising CFTR domain assembly and maturation [2], [5], [6]. As a result, ATP-dependent relay of conformational changes of NBDs and MSDs involved in chloride channel gating are affected along with CFTR biogenesis [7]. Besides regulating chloride transport, CFTR loss of function also hampers other physiological processes regulated by this channel, such as sodium transport, ATP transport, vesicular transport, acidification of intracellular organelles and bicarbonate-chloride exchange [8]–[10]. "
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    ABSTRACT: The cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator (CFTR) is a cyclic-AMP dependent chloride channel expressed at the apical surface of epithelial cells lining various organs such as the respiratory tract. Defective processing and functioning of this protein caused by mutations in the CFTR gene results in loss of ionic balance, defective mucus clearance, increased proliferation of biofilms and inflammation of human airways observed in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. The process by which CFTR folds and matures under the influence of various chaperones in the secretory pathway remains incompletely understood. Recently, calumenin, a secretory protein, belonging to the CREC family of low affinity calcium binding proteins has been identified as a putative CFTR chaperone whose biophysical properties and functions remain uncharacterized. We compared hydropathy, instability, charge, unfoldability, disorder and aggregation propensity of calumenin and other CREC family members with CFTR associated chaperones and calcium binding proteins, wild-type and mutant CFTR proteins and intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs). We observed that calumenin, along with other CREC proteins, was significantly more charged and less folded compared to CFTR associated chaperones. Moreover like IDPs, calumenin and other CREC proteins were found to be less hydrophobic and aggregation prone. Phylogenetic analysis revealed a close link between calumenin and other CREC proteins indicating how evolution might have shaped their similar biophysical properties. Experimentally, calumenin was observed to significantly reduce F508del-CFTR aggregation in a manner similar to AavLEA1, a well-characterized IDP. Fluorescence microscopy based imaging analysis also revealed altered trafficking of calumenin in bronchial cells expressing F508del-CFTR, indicating its direct role in the pathophysiology of CF. In conclusion, calumenin is characterized as a charged protein exhibiting close similarity with IDPs and is hypothesized to regulate F508del-CFTR folding by electrostatic effects. This work provides useful insights for designing optimized synthetic structural correctors of CFTR mutant proteins in the future.
    PLoS ONE 08/2014; 9(8):e104970. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0104970 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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