Management of the solitary thyroid nodule.

The Alfred Hospital, Monash University Endocrine Surgery Unit, Melbourne, Australia.
The Oncologist (Impact Factor: 4.54). 03/2008; 13(2):105-12. DOI: 10.1634/theoncologist.2007-0212
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Thyroid nodules are common, with up to 8% of the adult population having palpable nodules. With the use of ultrasound, up to 10 times more nodules are likely to be detected. Increasing numbers of nodules are being detected serendipitously because of the rising use of imaging to investigate unrelated conditions. The primary aim in investigating a thyroid nodule is to exclude the possibility of malignancy, which occurs in about 5% of nodules. This begins with a thorough history, including previous exposure to radiation and any family history of thyroid cancer or other endocrine diseases. Clinical examination of the neck should focus on the thyroid nodule and the gland itself, but also the presence of any cervical lymphadenopathy. Biochemical assessment of the thyroid needs to be followed by thyroid ultrasound, which may demonstrate features that are associated with a higher chance of the nodule being malignant. Fine-needle aspiration biopsy is crucial in the investigation of a thyroid nodule. It provides highly accurate cytologic information about the nodule from which a definitive management plan can be formulated. The challenge remains in the management of nodules that fall under the "indeterminate" category. These may be subject to more surgical intervention than is required because histological examination is the only way in which a malignancy can be excluded. Surgery followed by radioactive iodine ablation is the mainstay of treatment for differentiated thyroid cancers, and the majority of patients can expect high cure rates.

1 Follower
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Objective. The association between thyroid nodule (TN) prevalence and metabolic syndrome (MetS) has only rarely been examined in iodine-adequate areas and needs further clarification. We investigated correlations between MetS and TN prevalence in the iodine-adequate area of Hangzhou, China. Material and Method. A cross-sectional study that screened and recruited individuals for cohort research 3 years later. The 13522 subjects (8926 men, 4596 women) were screened in 2009 for all MetS components, thyroid ultrasound (US), and thyroid function. Cohort research recruited 1610 subjects who were screened in both 2009 and 2012, of whom 1061 underwent follow-up research. Results. The prevalence of TN was higher in the MetS (+) group than in the MetS (-) group (χ (2) = 69.63, P < 0.001) and higher in women than in men (χ (2) = 11.65, P = 0.001). Waist circumference (WC) was positively related to the prevalence of TN (OR = 1.022, P < 0.001). Individuals with greater WC in 2009 were more likely to suffer from TN in 2012 (RR = 1.434, P = 0.024). Elevated triglyceride level was a risk factor for developing new TN (RR = 1.001, P = 0.035). Conclusion. Both greater WC and elevated triglycerides are risk factors for new TN in this iodine-adequate area in China.
    International Journal of Endocrinology 01/2014; 2014:675796. DOI:10.1155/2014/675796 · 1.52 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND Fine-needle aspiration (FNA) has been widely accepted as the most crucial step in the preoperative assessment of thyroid nodules, but the false-negative rates are generally reported to be between 3.6% and 10.2%. To lower the overall incidence of this false-negative testing, new reporting systems encourage the molecular testing of thyroid nodules. However, to the authors' knowledge, the role of molecular testing in false-negative FNA has not yet been evaluated. METHODS In total, 1347 consecutive papillary thyroid carcinomas (PTCs) with both cytological and histological diagnoses were collected from the same center. A blinded revision of the false-negative cases was performed. An analysis of the BRAF and Ras genes in the false-negative cases was then performed. RESULTSThe false-negative rate at the time of primary FNA diagnosis was 4.8% (65 of 1347 cases). False-negative cases were 15 follicular variant PTCs, 2 classical variant, and 1 solid variant that lacked peculiar PTC cytomorphological features. Adequate cellular material for molecular analysis was available only in 54 of the 65 false-negative cases. Mutations were found in 6 cases (11%), and Ras alterations were present in 16 cases (29.6%). The addition of molecular analysis decreased the false-negative rate to 0.4% (5 of 1347 cases). CONCLUSIONS The results of the current study confirm the feasibility of BRAF and Ras analysis in routine FNA. However, when the false-negative FNA rate is low, the cost-benefit analysis of the detection of BRAF and Ras mutations should be carefully evaluated. Consequently, the authors suggest that preoperative molecular assessment could be helpful for benign nodules, but only in the presence of clinical suspicion of malignancy. Cancer (Cancer Cytopathol) 2014;122:751-759. (c) 2014 American Cancer Society. The rate of false-negative cases on thyroid fine-needle aspiration was 1.3% (18 of 1347 cases) in the referral center. The addition of molecular analysis decreased the false-negative rate to 0.4% (5 of 1347 cases). These data suggest that the addition of BRAF and Ras mutation preoperative assessment may be helpful, but the cost benefit must be carefully evaluated.
    Cancer Cytopathology 10/2014; 122(10). DOI:10.1002/cncy.21454 · 3.81 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background:Fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) in the diagnosis of thyroid nodules is an easy and cost-effective method. The increase in malignancy rates of the excised nodules due to the high sensitivity and specificity rates of the FNAC is remarkable.Aim:The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of FNAC in the evaluation of thyroid nodules by comparing the results with histopathologic evaluation and comparing the consistency of the results with the literature.Materials and Methods:In this study, 1607 FNACs of 1333 patients which were classified according to the Bethesda system and 126 histopathological evaluations obtained from this group were evaluated. The mean age of the patients was 51.24 (range: 17-89, 17% male and 83% female). The sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, and accuracy rates were evaluated.Results:The sensitivity was 87.1% and specificity was 64.6%. The positive and negative predictive value and accuracy rates were 76.1%, 79.5%, and 77.3%, respectively.Conclusions:In our study, the evaluation of thyroid FNAC samples with Bethesda system highly correlated with the results of histopathological diagnosis. However, combination of additional and advanced diagnostic methods such as immunocytochemical studies and molecular pathology techniques enhance the prognostic value of FNAC in patients with atypia of undetermined significance or follicular lesion of undetermined significance, lesions suspicious for malignancy, and suspected follicular neoplasm.
    Journal of Cytology 04/2014; 31(2):73-8. DOI:10.4103/0970-9371.138666 · 0.41 Impact Factor


1 Download
Available from