Impact of stone location on success rates of endoscopic lithotripsy for nephrolithiasis
ABSTRACT To determine whether stone location affects the stone-free rates of endoscopic lithotripsy for nephrolithiasis.
From January 2002 to August 2006, 245 patients with 272 stones, ranging from 4 to 20 mm in size, underwent ureteroscopy (URS) with laser lithotripsy at West Virginia University Hospital. The patients were followed up postoperatively with noncontrast spiral computed tomography, abdominal plain radiography, renal ultrasonography, or retrograde pyelography. Patients were considered to have been treated successfully if they had no residual stones. All pediatric patients were excluded, as were all patients with stones greater than 2 cm. Also, patients who had undergone previous shock wave lithotripsy, percutaneous nephrolithotripsy, or URS by an outside urologist were excluded.
A total of 86 kidney stones were treated with URS and laser lithotripsy. Of these, 81 (94.2%) were successfully treated. Five patients (5.8%) had persistent stones. All 18 upper pole stones (100%) were cleared, 23 (95.8%) of 24 middle pole stones were cleared, and 40 (90.9%) of 44 lower pole stones were cleared (P = 0.338).
URS is an important tool for treating nephroureterolithiasis with excellent success rates and minimal morbidity. The results of our study have shown that stone location does not significantly affect stone clearance rates when performing endoscopic lithotripsy for intrarenal calculi.
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ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of retrograde intrarenal surgery (RIRS) for the treatment of renal stones and to analyze the predictive factors for stone-free. We retrospectively reviewed the records of patients who underwent RIRS for renal stones from January 2000 to July 2009. We identified 66 RIRSs (63 patients with 3 bilateral renal stones) and collected data. Stone-free and success were respectively defined as no visible stones and clinically insignificant residual stones less than 3 mm on postoperative imaging; predictive factors for stone-free were evaluated. Of the 66 renal stones, 18 stones (27.3%) were located in the upper pole or midpole or renal pelvis and 48 (72.7%) in the lower pole with or without others, respectively. The mean cumulative stone burden was 168.9±392.5 mm(2). The immediate postoperative stone-free rate was 69.7%, and it increased to 72.7% at 1 month after surgery. The success rate was 80.3% both immediately after the operation and 1 month later. In the multivariate analysis, stone location except at the lower pole (p=0.049) and small cumulative stone burden (p=0.002) were significantly favorable predictive factors for the immediate postoperative stone-free rate. The overall complication rate was 6%. RIRS is a safe and effective treatment for renal stones. The stone-free rate of RIRS was particularly high for renal stones with a small burden, except for those located in the lower pole. RIRS could be considered in selective patients with renal stones.Korean journal of urology 11/2010; 51(11):777-82. DOI:10.4111/kju.2010.51.11.777
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ABSTRACT: Today, shock wave lithotripsy (SWL), percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL), and flexible ureterorenoscopy (URS) are the most widely used modalities for the management of renal stones. In earlier series, treatment success of renal calculi assessed with KUB radiography, ultrasound, or intravenous pyelography which are less sensitive than CT that leads to be diversity of study results in reporting outcome. Residual fragments (RFs) after interventional therapies may cause pain, infection, or obstruction. The size and location of RFs following SWL and PCNL are the major predictors for clinical significant symptoms and stone events requiring intervention. There is no consensus regarding schedule for followup of SWL, PCNL, and flexible URS. Active monitoring can be recommended when the stones become symptomatic, increase in size, or need intervention. RFs <4 mm after SWL and <2 mm after PCNL and flexible URS could be actively monitored on an annual basis with CT. Early repeat SWL and second-look endoscopy are recommended after primary SWL and PCNL, respectively. There is insufficient data for flexible URS, but RFs can be easily treated with repeat URS. Finally, medical therapy should be tailored based on the stone analysis and metabolic workup that may be helpful to prevent regrowth of the RFs.Advances in Urology 07/2012; 2012:813523. DOI:10.1155/2012/813523
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ABSTRACT: The Post-Ureteroscopic Lesion Scale (PULS) offers a simple grading system for the description of ureteral lesions after ureteroscopy. In this article, we present the results of a video-based multicenter evaluation of the inter-rater reliability of clinically important PULS grades 0-3. Video sequences at the end of ureteroscopy (final passage) were recorded for 100 consecutive patients at a single institution and assessed by experienced urologists (n = 20) and senior residents (n = 17) at 19 international centers. The cohort included only patients with lesions grades 0-3 (with grades 2 and 3 subsumed as 2 + since distinction is defined by an extravasation of contrast medium in fluoroscopy). The gradings were evaluated for inter-rater reliability and in terms of simplicity, validity, comprehensibility, reproducibility, and usefulness. Overall, inter-rater reliability was high (Kendall's W = 0.69, p < 0.001) and was comparable between specialists (Kendall's W = 0.69, p < 0.001) and residents (Kendall's W = 0.71, p < 0.001). The matched ratings showed grade 0 in 43.0 % of patients and grades 1 or 2 + in 44.0 and 13.0 % of patients, respectively. Results of the questionnaires indicated a high degree of acceptance, with an overall rating of 1.76 (1.64-1.93 for different items, scale 1-6). Inter-rater reliability of the endoscopically assessable PULS was high among urologists with different levels of experience in different countries worldwide. The validated PULS system may be used for standardized reporting of ureteral lesions/injuries after ureteroscopy. In addition, PULS will enable more selective standardization of indications for postoperative DJ stenting based on the randomized controlled trials.World Journal of Urology 10/2013; 32(4). DOI:10.1007/s00345-013-1185-1 · 3.42 Impact Factor