Evaluation of a classroom-based physical activity promoting programme
ABSTRACT The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effect of the Happy 10 programme on the promotion of physical activity, physical growth and development of primary school students, and on obesity control and prevention. Two similar primary schools from one district of Beijing, China were selected, one as an intervention school and the other as a control school. A Happy 10 programme was implemented at least once every school day in the intervention school for two semesters, whereas no intervention was adopted in the control school. The information on energy expenditure and duration of physical activity was collected by a validated 7-day physical activity questionnaire. Height and weight were measured by the trained investigators following standardized procedure. Energy expenditure and intensity of each Happy 10 session were measured by a physical activity monitor. The average energy expenditure and duration of total physical activity per day among students in the intervention school increased significantly from 15.0 to 18.2 kcal kg(-1) and 2.8 to 3.3 h, respectively, whereas the figures significantly decreased in the control school. There was a significant difference in change of weight and body mass index between girls in the intervention and control school (2.4 kg vs. 4.6 kg; 0.47 kg m(-2) vs. 0.66 kg m(-2)). The prevalence of overweight and obesity in the intervention school decreased by 0.4-5.6%, as compared with the increase by 0.6-4.5% in the control school. The average energy expenditure and intensity per 10-min session ranged from 25.0 to 35.1 kcal and from 4.8 to 6.2 kcal kg(-1) h(-1), respectively, in grades 1-5. The Happy 10 programme provides a useful strategy to promote physical activity among school children, and also plays a positive role in building up physical growth and development of girls.
- SourceAvailable from: Louise L HardyAmerican Journal of Preventive Medicine · 4.28 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The hybrid UPS-systems have been developed by combining main elements of the so-called static UPS-systems with the synchronous motor drive preferably used in dynamic UPS-systems. Thus a system has been created which combines many advantages of both technologies. The advantage of dynamic UPS-systems in general and particularly at larger outputs is that no electric-chemical energy storage and - in many cases - no additional stand-by generating set is needed. At further rising outputs, however, kynetic energy storages - fly-wheels - have their economical and financial limits. Research work has been done with the aim to complete or replace the fly-wheel by hydro-static storages. The technical result as presented with this paper has been fully satisfying.
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ABSTRACT: A meta-analysis was conducted on school-based interventions to reduce obesity in children. Sixty-six (k = 66, N = 31,059) comparisons from 40 published studies from 1997 through 2008 were included in analyses. Results indicated a significant effect for school-based interventions with an overall weighted effect size of r = .05. Several moderating factors were examined to explain the heterogeneity in study outcomes. Interventions that were universal (k = 37, r = .07), conducted in elementary schools (k = 41, r = .06), implemented collaboratively (k = 19, r = .12), primarily included children of Asian ethnicity (k = 5, r = .30), encouraged nutritional change (k = 28, r = .13), and sought to reduce sedentary behaviors (k = 17, r = .15) were identified as more successful in reducing students' obesity-related outcomes. Factors that resulted in negative effects for school-based programs included interventions of short duration (k = 11, r = −.04) and those that implemented system-wide changes in nutrition (k = 15, r = −.03). The variability in study effect sizes is discussed, and recommendations are made for future school-based interventions targeting children. © 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.Psychology in the Schools 09/2009; 46(8):695 - 719. DOI:10.1002/pits.20409 · 0.72 Impact Factor