Horizontal basal cells are multipotent progenitors in normal and injured adult olfactory epithelium.
ABSTRACT The mammalian olfactory neuroepithelium provides a unique system for understanding the regulation of neurogenesis by adult neural stem cells. Recently, mouse horizontal basal cells (HBCs) were identified as stem cells that regenerate olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) and non-neuronal cell types only after extensive injury of the olfactory epithelium (OE). Here we report a broader spectrum of action for these cells. We show that even during normal neuronal turnover, HBCs actively generate neuronal and non-neuronal cells throughout adulthood. This occurs in a temporally controlled manner: an initial wave of HBC-derived neurogenesis was observed soon after birth, and a second wave of neurogenesis was observed at 4 months of age. Moreover, upon selective depletion of mature ORNs by olfactory bulbectomy, HBCs give rise to more neurons. Our findings demonstrate a crucial role for HBCs as multipotent progenitors in the adult OE, acting during normal neuronal turnover as well as in acute regeneration upon injury.
Article: Defects in neural stem cell proliferation and olfaction in Chd7 deficient mice indicate a mechanism for hyposmia in human CHARGE syndrome.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Mutations in CHD7, a chromodomain gene, are present in a majority of individuals with CHARGE syndrome, a multiple anomaly disorder characterized by ocular Coloboma, Heart defects, Atresia of the choanae, Retarded growth and development, Genital hypoplasia and Ear anomalies. The clinical features of CHARGE syndrome are highly variable and incompletely penetrant. Olfactory dysfunction is a common feature in CHARGE syndrome and has been potentially linked to primary olfactory bulb defects, but no data confirming this mechanistic link have been reported. On the basis of these observations, we hypothesized that loss of Chd7 disrupts mammalian olfactory tissue development and function. We found severe defects in olfaction in individuals with CHD7 mutations and CHARGE, and loss of odor evoked electro-olfactogram responses in Chd7 deficient mice, suggesting reduced olfaction is due to a dysfunctional olfactory epithelium. Chd7 expression was high in basal olfactory epithelial neural stem cells and down-regulated in mature olfactory sensory neurons. We observed smaller olfactory bulbs, reduced olfactory sensory neurons, and disorganized epithelial ultrastructure in Chd7 mutant mice, despite apparently normal functional cilia and sustentacular cells. Significant reductions in the proliferation of neural stem cells and regeneration of olfactory sensory neurons in the mature Chd7(Gt/+) olfactory epithelium indicate critical roles for Chd7 in regulating neurogenesis. These studies provide evidence that mammalian olfactory dysfunction due to Chd7 haploinsufficiency is linked to primary defects in olfactory neural stem cell proliferation and may influence olfactory bulb development.Human Molecular Genetics 04/2009; 18(11):1909-23. · 7.64 Impact Factor