Intracranial stenting of severe symptomatic intracranial stenosis: results of 100 consecutive patients.
ABSTRACT There are a few reports regarding the outcome evaluation of balloon-expandable intracranial stent placement (BEICS). The purpose of our study was to evaluate the outcome and factors related to the adverse events (AEs) of BEICS.
We evaluated 100 consecutive patients who underwent BEICS. We assessed the procedural success (residual stenosis < 50%), AEs (minor strokes, major strokes, and death), clinical outcome, and restenosis (> 50%) at 6 months. We also analyzed 18 factors including symptom patterns related to AE rate. Symptom patterns revealed 1) stable patients (n = 73) with improving, stationary, or resolved symptoms; and 2) unstable patients (n = 27) with gradual worsening or fluctuating symptoms (National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale [NIHSS] > or = 4) within 2 days before stent placement.
The procedural success rate was 99%. Overall, there were 10 (10%) AEs within the 6 months: 4 (4%) minor strokes, 3 (3%) major strokes, and 3 (3%) deaths including a death from myocardial infarction. AE rate was 4.1% in stable and 25.9% in unstable patients. Restenosis at 6 months revealed 0% (0/59). Good outcome (modified Rankin Scale < or = 2) at 6 months was 97% (71/73) in stable and 67% (18/27) in unstable patients. Stepwise logistic regression model revealed that symptom pattern (unstable versus stable) was the only significant risk factor (OR, 8.167; 95% CI, 1.933-34.500; P = .004).
BEICS revealed a low AE and good outcome rate at 6 months, especially in the stable patients. Midterm outcome was also favorable in the unstable patient group.
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ABSTRACT: Coronary restenosis has proven to be the "Achilles heel" of percutaneous coronary interventions, frequently leading to repeated procedures. The pathogenesis of restenosis can be divided into four phases: early elasic recoil (hours to days), mural thrombus formation (hours to days), neointimal proliferation and extracellular matrix formation (weeks), and chronic geometric arterial changes (months). Restenosis is device nonspecific except for intravascular stents, which can eliminate elastic recoil and prevent geometric vessel changes, leading to decreased restenosis. Of all antithrombotics tried so far, only an inhibitor of the platelet IIb/IIIa integrin, which may lead to early vessel wall passivation, has shown reduction of clinical restenosis. Trapidil (antiproliferative agent) and angiopeptin (somatostatin analog) have also resulted in improved restenosis rates. The field of local drug delivery is currently under investigation in association with radiation or molecular therapy. The current specific target of these approaches is the neointimal proliferation, especially because this is the most dominant mechanism of restenosis after stent placement. Evaluation of these novel methods is complex and interrelates the delivery system with the therapeutic agent administered. However, they provide the means for very specific and timely interruption of the pathogenic process that may lead to better understanding and, ultimately, elimination of restenosis.American Heart Journal 09/1996; 132(2 Pt 1):428-36. · 4.50 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: methods We randomly assigned patients with transient ischemic attack or stroke caused by an- giographically verified 50 to 99 percent stenosis of a major intracranial artery to receive warfarin (target international normalized ratio, 2.0 to 3.0) or aspirin (1300 mg per day) in a double-blind, multicenter clinical trial. The primary end point was ischemic stroke, brain hemorrhage, or death from vascular causes other than stroke. results After 569 patients had undergone randomization, enrollment was stopped because of concerns about the safety of the patients who had been assigned to receive warfarin. During a mean follow-up period of 1.8 years, adverse events in the two groups included death (4.3 percent in the aspirin group vs. 9.7 percent in the warfarin group; hazard ra- tio for aspirin relative to warfarin, 0.46; 95 percent confidence interval, 0.23 to 0.90; P=0.02), major hemorrhage (3.2 percent vs. 8.3 percent, respectively; hazard ratio, 0.39; 95 percent confidence interval, 0.18 to 0.84; P=0.01), and myocardial infarction or sudden death (2.9 percent vs. 7.3 percent, respectively; hazard ratio, 0.40; 95 percent confidence interval, 0.18 to 0.91; P=0.02). The rate of death from vascular causes was 3.2 percent in the aspirin group and 5.9 percent in the warfarin group (P=0.16); the rate of death from nonvascular causes was 1.1 percent and 3.8 percent, respectively (P=0.05). The primary end point occurred in 22.1 percent of the patients in the aspirin group and 21.8 percent of those in the warfarin group (hazard ratio, 1.04; 95 percent confidence interval, 0.73 to 1.48; P=0.83). conclusions Warfarin was associated with significantly higher rates of adverse events and provided no benefit over aspirin in this trial. Aspirin should be used in preference to warfarin for patients with intracranial arterial stenosis. abstractCurrent Cardiology Reports 03/2006; 8(1):7.
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ABSTRACT: Antithrombotic therapy for intracranial arterial stenosis was recently evaluated in the Warfarin versus Aspirin for Symptomatic Intracranial Disease (WASID) trial. A prespecified aim of WASID was to identify patients at highest risk for stroke in the territory of the stenotic artery who would be the target group for a subsequent trial comparing intracranial stenting with medical therapy. WASID was a randomized, double-blinded, multicenter trial involving 569 patients with transient ischemic attack or ischemic stroke due to 50% to 99% stenosis of a major intracranial artery. Median time from qualifying event to randomization was 17 days, and mean follow-up was 1.8 years. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards models were used to identify factors associated with subsequent ischemic stroke in the territory of the stenotic artery. Subsequent ischemic stroke occurred in 106 patients (19.0%); 77 (73%) of these strokes were in the territory of the stenotic artery. Risk of stroke in the territory of the stenotic artery was highest with severe stenosis > or =70% (hazard ratio 2.03; 95% confidence interval 1.29 to 3.22; P=0.0025) and in patients enrolled early (< or =17 days) after the qualifying event (hazard ratio 1.69; 95% confidence interval 1.06 to 2.72; P=0.028). Women were also at increased risk, although this was of borderline significance (hazard ratio 1.59; 95% confidence interval 1.00 to 2.55; P=0.051). Location of stenosis, type of qualifying event, and prior use of antithrombotic medications were not associated with increased risk. Among patients with symptomatic intracranial stenosis, the risk of subsequent stroke in the territory of the stenotic artery is greatest with stenosis > or =70%, after recent symptoms, and in women.Circulation 01/2006; 113(4):555-63. · 15.20 Impact Factor