Reduction of ischemic, pharmacological and remote preconditioning effects by an antioxidant N-acetyl cysteine pretreatment in isolated rat heart
ABSTRACT The present study was designed to investigate the possible role of free radicals in cardioprotective effects of ischemic, pharmacological and remote preconditioning. Isolated rat heart was perfused on Langendorff apparatus with Kreb's Henseleit solution and subjected to 30 min global ischemia followed by 120 min reperfusion. To assess myocardial injury, coronary effluent was analyzed for lactate dehydrogenase and creatine kinase activity. Myocardial infarct size was estimated using triphenyl tetrazolium chloride staining. Ischemic preconditioning, pharmacological preconditioning (angiotensin II; H2O2), remote aortic preconditioning markedly attenuated I/R induced increase in lactate dehydrogenase and creatine kinase release and myocardial infarct size. Administration of N-Acetyl Cysteine (NAC), in vitro, during ischemic and pharmacological, and in vivo during remote preconditioning attenuated the cardioprotective effects of preconditioning. On the basis of these results, it may be concluded that sub threshold generation of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) may activate redox signaling which may be responsible for preconditioning induced cardioprotection.
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ABSTRACT: Background. Remote ischemic preconditioning (RIP) and pharmacological preconditioning are the effective methods that can be used to prevent ischemia reperfusion (IR) injury. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of RIP and N-Acetylcysteine (NAC) with RIP in the rat hepatic IR injury model. Materials and Methods. 28 rats were divided into 4 groups. Group I (sham): only laparotomy was performed. Group II (IR): following 30 minutes of hepatic pedicle occlusion, 4 hours of reperfusion was performed. Group III (RIP + IR): following 3 cycles of RIP, hepatic IR was performed. Group IV (RIP + NAC + IR): following RIP and intraperitoneal administration of NAC (150 mg/kg), hepatic IR was performed. All the rats were sacrificed after blood samples were taken for the measurements of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels and liver was processed for conventional histopathology. Results. The hepatic histopathological injury scores of RIP + IR and RIP + NAC + IR groups were significantly lower than IR group (P = 0.006, P = 0.003, resp.). There were no significant differences in AST and ALT values between the IR, RIP + IR, and RIP + NAC + IR groups. Conclusions. In the present study, it was demonstrated histopathologically that RIP and RIP + NAC decreased hepatic IR injury significantly.01/2014; 2014:892704. DOI:10.1155/2014/892704
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ABSTRACT: There is much interest in the role of oxidant stress in an ever-increasing list of disease states. However, the precise mediator of oxidant stress and the stressor molecule/s have not been identified. Accordingly, trials of inhibitors of oxidant stress in animal models of disease states have met only limited success. The trials of traditional anti-oxidant vitamins have been largely unsuccessful in the treatment of a wide array of disease states in humans. Recent identification of LOX-1 in vascular endothelial cells and its activation by oxidant species have led to a marked improvement in our understanding of the pathology of several cardiovascular disease states. Here, we review the disease states where therapy targeted at LOX-1 inhibition might be helpful.Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy 08/2011; 25(5):495-500. DOI:10.1007/s10557-011-6325-5 · 2.95 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Ischemic preconditioning is an intrinsic process in which preconditioning ischemia (ischemia of shorter duration) protects the organs against the subsequent index ischemia (sustained ischemia). Remote ischemic preconditioning (RIPC) is an innovative treatment approach in which interspersed cycles of preconditioning ischemia followed by reperfusion to a remote organ (other than target organ) protect the target organ against index ischemia and reperfusion-induced injury. RIPC of various organs to provide multi-organ salvage became a successful approach in numerous species of animals. Consequently, the concept of RIPC evolved in clinical setups, and provided beneficial effects in alleviating ischemia-reperfusion-induced injury in various remote organs, including myocardium. Clinically, RIPC stimulus is generally delivered by inflating the blood pressure cuff tied on the upper arm 20mm greater than the systolic blood pressure, rendering the forearm ischemic for 5min, followed 5min reperfusion by deflating the cuff. This cycle is repeated for 3-4 consecutive periods to precondition the tissue and improve the survival. The institution of RIPC is beneficial in mitigating myocardial injury in patients undergoing various surgical interventions including coronary artery bypass graft surgery, abdominal aortic aneurysm repair, percutaneous coronary intervention, heart valve surgery, drug-eluting stent implantation, kidney transplantation, elective decompression surgery. The involvement of hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α), ATP-sensitive potassium channels, signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT), matrix metalloproteinases, O-linked β-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) levels, autonomous nervous system in mediating RIPC-induced cardioprotective effects has been explored clinically. However, comprehensive studies are required to elucidate the other possible mechanisms responsible for producing multi-organ protection during RIPC.European Journal of Pharmacology 08/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.ejphar.2014.08.016 · 2.68 Impact Factor