Effect of pronounced weight loss on visceral fat, liver steatosis and adiponectin isoforms.
ABSTRACT Weight loss induced by bariatric surgery is an effective method to reverse obesity and comorbidities. The aim of this prospective weight loss study was to investigate changes of body fat distribution in relation to adiponectin and its isoforms and further to investigate the influence of both body fat distribution and adiponectin on the degree of liver steatosis.
Fifteen severely obese female patients (body mass index 43.1 +/- 4.1, mean age 34.5 +/- 8.6 years) were examined before and after surgical treatment. Grading of fatty liver disease and the subcutaneous and visceral fat diameters were determined by abdominal ultrasonography. Metabolic parameters were determined using standard methods; serum total adiponectin and its isoforms were detected by enzyme immuno assay (EIA).
Mean weight loss was 28.3 kg, which was mostly due to a loss in fat mass, accompanied by an increase in total adiponectin and the high molecular weight (HMW) adiponectin isoform. Visceral adipose tissue (VAT) diameter was highly correlated with liver steatosis, even more strongly than the parameters of liver function. In addition, liver steatosis correlated negatively with HMW adiponectin and binary logistic regression revealed that changes in fat mass, HMW adiponectin and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) were the best predictors for changes in the degree of hepatic steatosis.
Our results suggest that circulating HMW adiponectin is associated with both VAT and liver steatosis. In summary, the major findings were that the VAT diameter is highly correlated with liver steatosis, even stronger than the parameters of liver function and the association of HMW adiponectin with liver steatosis was better than with total adiponectin.
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ABSTRACT: To determine whether visceral fat reduction in connection with bariatric surgery could improve weight loss and metabolic profile of obese subjects. In a one-center, randomized and controlled pilot trial we assigned 50 subjects with severe obesity (body mass index >35 kg/m(2)) to either adjustable gastric banding (AGB) alone (11 men and 14 women), or AGB plus surgical removal of the total greater omentum (11 men and 14 women). The patients were followed at regular intervals for 2 y and examined at 0 and 24 months with respect to body composition and metabolic profile. No significant differences between control and omentectomized patients were observed at baseline. The removed greater omentum constituted 0.8+/-0.4% (mean+/-s.d.) of total body fat. At 2 y follow-up there was an expected decrease in body weight and an improvement in metabolic profile in both groups. Although omentectomized subjects tended to lose more weight than control subjects the difference was not statistically significant and changes in waist-to-hip ratio and saggital diameter did not differ between groups. However, the improvements in oral glucose tolerance, insulin sensitivity and fasting plasma glucose and insulin were 2-3 times greater in omentectomized as compared to control subjects (P from 0.009 to 0.04), which was statistically independent of the loss in body mass index. No differences in blood lipids between the groups were recorded. No adverse effects related to omentectomy were observed. Omentectomy, when performed together with AGB, has significant positive and long-term effects on the glucose and insulin metabolic profiles in obese subjects.International Journal of Obesity 02/2002; 26(2):193-9. · 5.22 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The metabolic syndrome, a cluster of metabolic disorders often associated with visceral obesity, increases cardiovascular mortality and morbidity. As the body's largest endocrine organ, adipose tissue not only stores excess body energy, but also secretes a variety of bioactive adipocytokines. Obese patients, particularly those with visceral fat accumulation, have reduced plasma levels of adiponectin, the most abundant and adipose-specific adipocytokine. Although the association of adiponectin with several diseases remains controversial, many clinical studies have demonstrated that low plasma concentrations of adiponectin (hypoadiponectinaemia) associate closely with obesity-related diseases, including atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases, Type II diabetes mellitus, hypertension and dyslipidaemia. Accumulating experimental evidence indicates that adiponectin possesses anti-atherogenic, anti-inflammatory and anti-diabetic properties and may also participate importantly in the mechanism of metabolic syndrome and other diseases. Despite these associations, further clinical and experimental investigations will be needed to illuminate the in vivo pathophysiological significance of this protein. Although evaluation of adiponectin as a novel therapy will ultimately require clinical intervention studies, this mediator may represent a novel target for the prevention and treatment of visceral obesity metabolic syndrome.Clinical Science 04/2006; 110(3):267-78. · 4.86 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To examine the factors associated with liver steatosis in severely obese subjects and to test the potential reversibility of fatty liver after weight loss. Retrospective clinical study. 528 obese patients before bariatric surgery and 69 obese subjects of the initial cohort evaluated before and 27+/-15 months after gastroplasty. Fatty deposition (scored as mild, moderate or severe) and inflammatory changes were evaluated in liver biopsies; clinical (body mass index (BMI), age, gender, duration of obesity) and biological (glucose, triglycerides, liver enzymes) parameters were related to histological findings. 74% of the 528 biopsies showed fatty change, estimated as mild in 41% of cases, moderate in 32% and severe in 27%. The prevalence of steatosis was significantly higher in men than in women (91% vs 70%, P = 0.001) and in patients with impaired glucose tolerance or type 2 diabetes compared with nondiabetics (89% vs 69% P = 0.001). The severity of the steatosis was associated with BMI (P = 0.002) but not with the duration of obesity or the age of the patient. When compared with patients without fatty change, those with liver steatosis had significantly higher fasting plasma glucose (5.5 mmol/l vs 5.1 mmol/l, P = 0.007) and triglycerides (1.8 mmol/l vs 1.3 mmol/l, P = 0.002). Mean serum liver enzyme activities (alkaline phosphatase, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and gamma-glutamyl-transpeptidase (gammaGT) were significantly (P < 0.001) increased in patients with fatty change but remained within laboratory reference values. In the 69 patients who have been evaluated after a marked weight reduction (-32+/-19kg), 45% of the biopsies were considered as normal (vs 13% before, P < 0.001) while pure fatty change was still observed in 38% of the patients (vs 83% before, P = 0.001). However, the severity of the steatosis was significantly (P < 0.001) reduced (mild: 62% vs 21%; moderate: 23% vs 37%; severe: 15% vs 42%). In addition, a significant increase of hepatitis was observed in 26% of the biopsies (vs 14% before, P < 0.05). Liver steatosis in obese subjects is associated with men, diabetic status, BMI, higher fasting glucose and hypertriglyceridaemia. Postgastroplasty weight loss reduces liver steatosis, but seems to increase the incidence of inflammatory lobular hepatitis.International Journal of Obesity 03/1998; 22(3):222-6. · 5.22 Impact Factor