Fireworks are probably the application of chemistry which resonates best with the general public. However, fireworks and (civil and military) pyrotechnic applications cause environmental pollution and thus have given rise to the development of new, environmentally friendly pyrotechnic compounds and formulations. Nitrogen-rich energetic materials, such as the derivatives of tetrazoles and tetrazines, are about to revolutionize traditional pyrotechnic compositions. This Review summarizes the sources of pollution in current formulations and recent efforts toward "green" pyrotechnics.
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[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Salts of 5,5’-azotetrazole with organic bases were studied in respect to their thermodynamic properties. The calorimetric measurements were carried out in a bomb calorimeter with a modified oxygen bomb. Samples to test were burnt in free the pending state, without using a crucible. The enthalpies of formation were calculated from measured heats of combustion using standard enthalpies of formation of the combustion products.
Proc. 18th Seminar of the New Trends in Research of Energetic Materials, Pardubice, Czech Republic, April 13–17, 2015, Part II, pp.638-645, Pardubice, Czech Republic; 04/2015
"Fireworks can be " greened " by the application of nitrogen-rich compounds (Steinhauser and Klapotke 2008). High-nitrogen energetic salts can be used in pyrotechnics by replacing perchlorate (Klapotke et al. 2010a). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Perchlorate is an inorganic anion that is used in solid rocket propellants, fireworks, munitions, signal flares, etc. The use of fireworks is identified as one of the main contributors in the increasing environmental perchlorate contamination. Although fireworks are displayed for entertainment, its environmental costs are dire. Perchlorates are also emerging as potent thyroid disruptors, and they have an impact on the ecology too. Many studies have shown that perchlorate contaminates the groundwater and the surface water, especially in the vicinity of fireworks manufacturing sites and fireworks display sites. The health and ecological impacts of perchlorate released in fireworks are yet to be fully assessed. This paper reviews fireworks as a source of perchlorate contamination and its expected adverse impacts.
"Although it served as a low-energy fuel, polyvinyl chloride (PVC) is a known color enhancer and participated as a chlorine donor during the combustion process. Another reason for the utilization of PVC was the volatilization of incandescent MgO by transforming it to the more volatile MgCl species . When chlorine and barium reacted during the combustion process, BaCl formed, and this species provided green light– emitting pyrotechnic qualities. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The effect of using crystalline boron in green-colored handheld signal formulations is described. Due to its chemically inert nature, crystalline boron served to reduce the burn rates of the formulations. By adjusting crystalline boron percentages in the formulations, the pyrotechnic system could be tuned to meet burn time specifications.