The role of oxidative stress in ambient particulate matter-induced lung diseases and its implications in the toxicity of engineered nanoparticles

Division of NanoMedicine, Department of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA.
Free Radical Biology and Medicine (Impact Factor: 5.71). 06/2008; 44(9):1689-99. DOI: 10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2008.01.028
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Ambient particulate matter (PM) is an environmental factor that has been associated with increased respiratory morbidity and mortality. The major effect of ambient PM on the pulmonary system is the exacerbation of inflammation, especially in susceptible people. One of the mechanisms by which ambient PM exerts its proinflammatory effects is the generation of oxidative stress by its chemical compounds and metals. Cellular responses to PM-induced oxidative stress include activation of antioxidant defense, inflammation, and toxicity. The proinflammatory effect of PM in the lung is characterized by increased cytokine/chemokine production and adhesion molecule expression. Moreover, there is evidence that ambient PM can act as an adjuvant for allergic sensitization, which raises the possibility that long-term PM exposure may lead to increased prevalence of asthma. In addition to ambient PM, rapid expansion of nanotechnology has introduced the potential that engineered nanoparticles (NP) may also become airborne and may contribute to pulmonary diseases by novel mechanisms that could include oxidant injury. Currently, little is known about the potential adverse health effects of these particles. In this communication, the mechanisms by which particulate pollutants, including ambient PM and engineered NP, exert their adverse effects through the generation of oxidative stress and the impacts of oxidant injury in the respiratory tract will be reviewed. The importance of cellular antioxidant and detoxification pathways in protecting against particle-induced lung damage will also be discussed.

Download full-text


Available from: Tian Xia, May 26, 2015
1 Follower
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The health impact of the global African dust event (ADE) phenomenon in the Caribbean has been vaguely investigated. Heavy metals in ADE and non-ADE extracts were evaluated for the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and antioxidant capacity by cells using, deferoxamine mesylate (DF) and N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC). Results show that ADE particulate matter 2.5 (PM2.5) induces ROS and stimulates oxidative stress. Pre-treatment with DF reduces ROS in ADE and Non-ADE extracts and in lung cells demonstrating that heavy metals are of utmost importance. Glutathione-S-transferase and Heme Oxygenase 1 mRNA levels are induced with ADE PM and reduced by DF and NAC. ADE extracts induced Nrf2 activity and IL-8 mRNA levels significantly more than Non-ADE. NF-kB activity was not detected in any sample. Trace elements and organic constituents in ADE PM2.5 enrich the local environment load, inducing ROS formation and activating antioxidant-signaling pathways increasing pro-inflammatory mediator expressions in lung cells.
    Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology 02/2015; 39:845-856. · 1.86 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Ambient particulate matter (PM) originates from a range of sources and differs in composition with respect to season, time of day, and particle size. In this study, ambient PM samples in the ultrafine and submicrometer fine range were tested for the potential to exacerbate a murine model of allergic airway inflammation when exposure occurs solely during allergic sensitization, but not during subsequent allergen challenge. Temporally resolved and size-segregated PM samples were used to understand how summer or winter, day or night, and ambient ultrafine and submicrometer fine particle size influence PM's ability to exacerbate allergic inflammation. PM was collected in urban Fresno, CA. BALB/c mice were exposed to PM and house dust mite allergen (HDM) via intranasal aspiration on d 1, 3, and 5. HDM challenge occurred on d 12-14, with inflammation assessed 24 h following final challenge. While season or particle size did not predict allergic inflammation, daytime ultrafine and submicrometer fine particles significantly increased total cellular inflammation, specifically lymphocyte and eosinophil infiltration, compared to allergic controls. Further studies examined PM-mediated changes within the lung during the period where allergen sensitization occurred by measuring direct effects of PM on pulmonary oxidative stress and inflammation. Pulmonary levels of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), a biomarker of oxidative stress, but not cellular inflammation, demonstrated a remarkable correlation with the degree of allergic inflammation in animals sensitized to allergen and PM concomitantly, suggesting acute PM-mediated HO-1 levels may serve as a predictive indicator of a particle's ability to exacerbate allergic airway inflammation.
    Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health Part A 02/2015; 78(4):254-266. DOI:10.1080/15287394.2014.959627 · 1.83 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: α-bisabolol, a natural sesquiterpene alcohol, has generated considerable interest for its anti-inflammatory activity. Since the mechanisms of this anti-inflammatory action remain poorly understood, we investigated whether α-bisabolol affects the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-12, IL-23, IL-6, and TNFα by human dendritic cells (DCs). We found that α-bisabolol did not induce the secretion of these cytokines and did not affect their release induced upon DC challenge with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a well known immune cell stimulator. As α-bisabolol is scarcely ingested by the cells, we wondered whether the inclusion of α-bisabolol into nanoparticles could favor its internalization by DCs and consequently its effects on cytokine secretion. We then prepared and characterized poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticles, with a dynamic light scattering peak centered at 154 nm and a half width at half maximum of about 48 nm. These particles were unable to affect per se cytokine secretion by both resting and LPS-stimulated DCs and were internalized by human DCs as demonstrated by confocal microscopy analysis. We then loaded PLGA nanoparticles with α-bisabolol and we observed that PLGA-associated α-bisabolol did not stimulate the cytokine release by resting DCs, but decreased IL-12, IL-23, IL-6, and TNFα secretion by LPS-stimulated DCs. Our results indicate that α-bisabolol inclusion into PLGA nanoparticles represents a very promising tool for designing new anti-inflammatory, anti-pyretic and, possibly, immunosuppressive therapeutic strategies.
    Journal of Nanoparticle Research 08/2014; 16(8):2554. DOI:10.1007/s11051-014-2554-4 · 2.28 Impact Factor