Does lateral parietal cortex support episodic memory? Evidence from focal lesion patients.
ABSTRACT Although neuroimaging and human lesion studies agree that the medial parietal region plays a critical role in episodic memory, many neuroimaging studies have also implicated lateral parietal cortex, leading some researchers to suggest that the lateral region plays a heretofore underappreciated role in episodic memory. Because there are very few extant lesion data on this matter, we examined memory in six cases of focal lateral parietal damage, using both clinical and experimental measures, in which we distinguished between recollection and familiarity. The patients did not have amnesia, but they did show evidence of disrupted recollection on an anterograde memory task. Although the exact mechanisms remain to be elucidated, lateral parietal damage appears to impair some aspects of episodic memory.
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ABSTRACT: Sixteen participants viewed a videotaped tour of 4 houses that highlighted a series of objects and their spatial locations. Participants were tested for memory of object, spatial, and temporal-order information while undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging. Preferential activation was observed in the right parahippocampal gyrus during the retrieval of spatial-location information. Retrieval of contextual information (spatial location and temporal order) was associated with activation in the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. In bilateral posterior parietal regions, greater activation was associated with processing of visual scenes regardless of the memory judgment. These findings support current theories positing roles for frontal and medial temporal regions during episodic retrieval and suggest a specific role for the hippocampal complex in the retrieval of spatial-location information.Behavioral Neuroscience 11/2004; 118(5):885-96. · 2.62 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Event-related functional MRI (fMRI) was used to investigate the neural correlates of memory encoding as a function of age. While fMRI data were obtained, 14 younger (mean age 21 years) and 14 older subjects (mean age 68 years) made animacy decisions about words. Recognition memory for these words was tested at two delays such that older subjects' performance at the short delay was comparable to that of the young subjects at the long delay. This allowed age-associated changes in the neural correlates of encoding to be dissociated from the correlates of differential recognition performance. Activity in left inferior prefrontal cortex and the left hippocampal formation was greater for subsequently recognized words in both age groups, consistent with the findings of previous studies in young adults. In the prefrontal cortex, these 'subsequent memory effects' were, however, left-lateralized in the younger group but bilateral in the older subjects. In addition, for the younger group only, greater activity for remembered words was observed in anterior inferior temporal cortex, as were reversed effects ('subsequent forgetting' effects) in anterior prefrontal regions. The data indicate that older subjects engage much of the same neural circuitry as younger subjects when encoding new memories. However, the findings also point to age-related differences in both prefrontal and temporal activity during successful episodic encoding.Brain 02/2003; 126(Pt 1):213-29. · 9.46 Impact Factor
Article: Prefrontal and parietal cortex in human episodic memory: an interference study by repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Neuroimaging findings, including repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) interference, point to an engagement of prefrontal cortex (PFC) in learning and memory. Whether parietal cortex (PC) activity is causally linked to successful episodic encoding and retrieval is still uncertain. We compared the effects of event-related active or sham rTMS (a rapid-rate train coincident to the very first phases of memoranda presentation) to the left or right intraparietal sulcus, during a standardized episodic memory task of visual scenes, with those obtained in a fully matched sample of subjects who received rTMS on left or right dorsolateral PFC during the same task. In these subjects, specific hemispheric effects of rTMS included interference with encoding after left stimulation and disruption of retrieval after right stimulation. The interference of PC-rTMS on encoding/retrieval performance was negligible, lacking specificity even when higher intensities of stimulation were applied. However, right PC-rTMS of the same intensity lengthened reaction times in the context of a purely attentive visuospatial task. These results suggest that the activity of intraparietal sulci shown in several functional magnetic resonance studies on memory, unlike that of the dorsolateral PFC, is not causally engaged to a useful degree in memory encoding and retrieval of visual scenes. The parietal activations accompanying the memorization processes could reflect the engagement of a widespread brain attentional network, in which interference on a single 'node' is insufficient for an overt disruption of memory performance.European Journal of Neuroscience 03/2006; 23(3):793-800. · 3.63 Impact Factor