Characterization of sonographic and mammographic features of granular cell tumors of the breast and estimation of their incidence.
ABSTRACT The purpose of this series was to review the spectrum of sonographic and mammographic features of granular cell tumors (GCTs) of the breast and to compare their frequency relative to breast carcinoma.
Ten cases of a breast GCT diagnosed during the last 13 years were analyzed for the imaging characteristics and clinical features. Sonographic images were reviewed for location, size, echogenicity, margins, height-width ratio, and sound transmission. Mammograms were reviewed for tumor size, location, margin characteristics, spiculations, and calcifications. The frequency of GCTs was compared with that of breast carcinoma during the same study period.
Of 10 GCT cases, 9 tumors occurred in female patients, and 1 occurred in a male patient. The mean patient age was 51.8 years, and the mean lesion size was 1.57 cm. All 7 tumors visualized on sonography were hypoechoic masses. Posterior enhancement was noted in 3 of 7 cases, and posterior shadowing was noted in 2 of 7 cases. Two of 7 did not show any posterior enhancement or shadowing. Two of 7 masses were taller than wide. Of 8 tumors visualized on mammography, 5 were spiculated, and 3 were well circumscribed. Calcifications were not visualized in any tumor. During the same period, 1482 cases of breast carcinoma were diagnosed, making the frequency of GCTs of the breast about 6.7 per thousand breast carcinomas.
Granular cell tumors of the breast are rare neoplasms with a relative frequency of 6.7 per thousand breast carcinomas in our series, which was higher than reported in literature. Spiculations are a common imaging feature and mimic carcinoma when present.
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ABSTRACT: Male breast disease includes a variety of benign and malignant conditions, many of which are hormonally influenced. Gynecomastia and skin lesions account for the majority of conditions in symptomatic men with a palpable abnormality, and these conditions should be accurately recognized. Imaging patterns of gynecomastia include nodular, dendritic, and diffuse patterns. Histopathologically, the nodular and dendritic patterns correlate with the florid and quiescent (fibrotic) phases of gynecomastia, respectively. The diffuse pattern may have features of both phases and is associated with exposure to exogenous estrogen. Benign-appearing palpable masses in male patients should be approached cautiously, given the overlapping morphologic features of benign and malignant tumors. In addition to gynecomastia, other benign male breast tumors include lipoma, pseudoangiomatous stromal hyperplasia, granular cell tumor, fibromatosis, myofibroblastoma, schwannoma, and hemangioma. Male breast cancer accounts for 1% of all breast carcinomas. Invasive ductal carcinoma accounts for the majority of cases in adult males and typically appears as a subareolar mass without calcifications that is eccentric to the nipple. Other epithelial and mesenchymal tumors that may occur, albeit not as commonly as in women, include papillary carcinoma, invasive lobular carcinoma, adenoid cystic carcinoma, liposarcoma, dermatofibrosarcoma, pleomorphic hyalinizing angiectatic tumor, basal cell carcinoma of the nipple, hematopoietic malignancies, and secondary tumors. Knowledge of the natural history, clinical characteristics, and imaging features of tumors that occur in the male breast will help narrow the radiologic differential diagnosis and optimize treatment.Radiographics 03/2013; 33(2):461-89. DOI:10.1148/rg.332125208 · 2.73 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Granular cell tumor of the breast (GCTB) is a rare tumor, particularly in lactating women. This tumor can clinically and radiologically mimic breast carcinoma, which poses particular problems. The association between GCTB and sex hormones should receive particular attention. The present study reports a case of GCTB in a lactating patient. In this tsudy, the case of a 29-year old female who presented with a mass in the right breast is decribed. Immunohistochemical and cytological analysis revealed a GCT and subsequently wide local excision was performed. At 15 months following surgery, the patient is well and no tumor recurrence has been identified. A comprehensive review of the literature was also performed to assess and compare all cases of GCTB, with particular attention to hyperestrogenic and hyperprolactinemic states. Further studies are required to explore the association between granular cell tumors and hyperestrogenic and hyperprolactinemic states.Oncology letters 12/2014; 8(6):2565-2568. DOI:10.3892/ol.2014.2563 · 0.99 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Objective. Ultrasonographic characteristics are associated with thyroid malignancy. Our aim was to compare the diagnostic value of ultrasound features in the detection of thyroid malignancy in both solid and mixed nodules. Methods. We prospectively studied female patients (≥50 years) referred to ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration biopsy. Ultrasound features considered suspicious were hypoechogenicity, microcalcifications, irregular margins, high anteroposterior (AP)/axial-ratio, and absent halo. Associations were separately assessed in mixed and solid nodules. Results. In a group of 504 elderly female patients (age = 69 ± 8 years), the frequency of malignant cytology was 6%. Thirty-one percent of nodules were mixed and 60% were solid. The rate of malignant cytology was similar for mixed and solid nodules (7.4 versus 5.8%, P: 0.56). While in mixed nodules none of the ultrasound characteristics were associated with malignant cytology, in solid nodules irregular margins and microcalcifications were significant (all P < 0.05). The combination of irregular margins and/or microcalcifications significantly increased the association with malignant cytology only in solid nodules (OR: 2.76 (95% CI: 1.25-6.10), P: 0.012). Conclusions. Ultrasound features were of poor diagnostic value in mixed nodules, which harbored malignant lesions as often as solid nodules. Our findings challenge the recommended minimal size for ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration biopsy in mixed nodules.06/2014; 2014:761653. DOI:10.1155/2014/761653This article is viewable in ResearchGate's enriched formatRG Format enables you to read in context with side-by-side figures, citations, and feedback from experts in your field.