Regulation of Mih1/Cdc25 by protein phosphatase 2A and casein kinase 1

Department of Molecular, Cell and Developmental Biology, University of California, Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz, CA 95064, USA.
The Journal of Cell Biology (Impact Factor: 9.69). 04/2008; 180(5):931-45. DOI: 10.1083/jcb.200711014
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The Cdc25 phosphatase promotes entry into mitosis by removing cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (Cdk1) inhibitory phosphorylation. Previous work suggested that Cdc25 is activated by Cdk1 in a positive feedback loop promoting entry into mitosis; however, it has remained unclear how the feedback loop is initiated. To learn more about the mechanisms that regulate entry into mitosis, we have characterized the function and regulation of Mih1, the budding yeast homologue of Cdc25. We found that Mih1 is hyperphosphorylated early in the cell cycle and is dephosphorylated as cells enter mitosis. Casein kinase 1 is responsible for most of the hyperphosphorylation of Mih1, whereas protein phosphatase 2A associated with Cdc55 dephosphorylates Mih1. Cdk1 appears to directly phosphorylate Mih1 and is required for initiation of Mih1 dephosphorylation as cells enter mitosis. Collectively, these observations suggest that Mih1 regulation is achieved by a balance of opposing kinase and phosphatase activities. Because casein kinase 1 is associated with sites of polar growth, it may regulate Mih1 as part of a signaling mechanism that links successful completion of growth-related events to cell cycle progression.

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