Impact of conjugate vaccine on transmission of antimicrobial-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae among Alaskan children.
ABSTRACT The impact of heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) on transmission of antimicrobial-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae is an important concern for countries considering PCV7 introduction.
Every winter from 2000 to 2004, as PCV7 was routinely introduced, we obtained nasopharyngeal swabs for pneumococcal culture, serotyping, and susceptibility testing from 150 children aged 3-59 months at each of 3 Anchorage, Alaska clinics. We assessed risk factors for pneumococcal carriage, including vaccination status and antimicrobial use.
Between 2000 and 2004, 2250 nasopharyngeal swabs from 2061 infants and children were collected. The proportion of children receiving > or = 1 PCV7 vaccination increased from 0 to 89%, whereas overall pneumococcal carriage remained stable (38% versus 41%, respectively). Among S. pneumoniae carriers, we observed declines in carriage of PCV7 serotypes (from 54% to 10%, P < 0.01) and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole nonsusceptible strains (44% to 16%, P < 0.01), but not in PCN-nonsusceptible strains (36% versus 37%). Among PCN-nonsusceptible types, the proportion of serotype 19A strains increased from 10% to 32% (P = 0.0002). Recent beta-lactam use was stable throughout the period (29% overall), whereas trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole use declined from 6% to 2% (P = 0.02).
PCV7 vaccination in the first 5 years did not affect overall pneumococcal carriage, but was associated with a shift in serotype distribution from PCV7 types to non-PCV7 types. With persistent pressure of some antimicrobials, reductions in carriage of antimicrobial nonsusceptible PCV7 types may be offset by increases in carriage of nonsusceptible non-PCV7 types.
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ABSTRACT: More than 3.5 million children aged less than 5 years die from diarrhoea and acute lower respiratory-tract infection every year. We undertook a randomised controlled trial to assess the effect of handwashing promotion with soap on the incidence of acute respiratory infection, impetigo, and diarrhoea. In adjoining squatter settlements in Karachi, Pakistan, we randomly assigned 25 neighbourhoods to handwashing promotion; 11 neighbourhoods (306 households) were randomised as controls. In neighbourhoods with handwashing promotion, 300 households each were assigned to antibacterial soap containing 1.2% triclocarban and to plain soap. Fieldworkers visited households weekly for 1 year to encourage handwashing by residents in soap households and to record symptoms in all households. Primary study outcomes were diarrhoea, impetigo, and acute respiratory-tract infections (ie, the number of new episodes of illness per person-weeks at risk). Pneumonia was defined according to the WHO clinical case definition. Analysis was by intention to treat. Children younger than 5 years in households that received plain soap and handwashing promotion had a 50% lower incidence of pneumonia than controls (95% CI (-65% to -34%). Also compared with controls, children younger than 15 years in households with plain soap had a 53% lower incidence of diarrhoea (-65% to -41%) and a 34% lower incidence of impetigo (-52% to -16%). Incidence of disease did not differ significantly between households given plain soap compared with those given antibacterial soap. Handwashing with soap prevents the two clinical syndromes that cause the largest number of childhood deaths globally-namely, diarrhoea and acute lower respiratory infections. Handwashing with daily bathing also prevents impetigo.The Lancet 01/2005; 366(9481):225-33. · 39.06 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: We investigated the association between prescribing antimicrobial agents and antimicrobial resistance of Streptococcus pneumoniae among children with acute otitis media in southern Israel. During a 6-year period, all prescriptions of a sample of approximately 20% of Jewish and Bedouin children <5 years of age were recorded and all pneumococcal isolates from middle ear fluid were collected. Although antimicrobial drug use was significantly higher in Bedouin children, the proportion of S. pneumoniae isolates with penicillin MIC = or > 1.0 microg/mL was significantly higher in Jewish children. In both populations, antimicrobial prescriptions were markedly reduced over time, especially for penicillins and erythromycin. In contrast, azithromycin prescriptions increased from 1998 to 2001 with a parallel increase in macrolide and multidrug resistance. Penicillin resistance was associated with macrolide resistance. These findings strongly suggest that azithromycin affects increased antimicrobial resistance, including multidrug resistance, in S. pneumoniae.Emerging infectious diseases 07/2005; 11(6):829-37. · 5.99 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Nasopharyngeal carriage of pneumococci is prevalent among children in developing countries but little is known about the relationship of nasopharyngeal carriage to invasive disease or about the way in which pneumococci spread within households. To determine the prevalence of nasopharyngeal carriage in healthy and sick Gambian children and to investigate transmission within households. Nasopharyngeal swabs were obtained by the per nasal route and cultured for pneumococci on selective media. Pneumococci were serotyped with the use of latex particles coated with type-specific antisera. Pneumococci were isolated from the nasopharynx of 73 (90.1%) of 81 children with invasive pneumococcal disease, 86 (76.1%) of 113 healthy, age-matched control children and 911 (85.1%) of 1071 sick children. Pneumococci belonging to serotypes 1, 14 and 12 were isolated significantly more frequently from cases than from matched controls. In 43 (76.8%) of 56 children with invasive disease, pneumococci isolated from the nasopharynx and from the blood or other sterile site belonged to the same serotype. Pneumococci of the same serotype as the bacterium responsible for invasive disease in a child were obtained from 72 (8.5%) of 843 family members, most frequently from young siblings of the case patients. Nasopharyngeal carriage of pneumococci is more prevalent among young Gambian children than among adults and invasive infections are probably acquired more frequently from siblings than from parents. However, further studies are needed to confirm this hypothesis with more discriminating markers than polysaccharide serotyping.The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal 11/1996; 15(10):866-71. · 3.57 Impact Factor