Direct interaction between SET8 and proliferating cell nuclear antigen couples H4-K20 methylation with DNA replication
ABSTRACT Chromatin endowed by histone modifications governs chromatin structure, which in turn represents a means to regulate cellular processes, including transcription and heterochromatin formation. Recent evidence revealed a plethora of enzymes that catalyze specific histone modifications for epigenetic maintenance, and dysregulation of which contributes to tumorigenesis and developmental defects. The histone methyltransferase SET8 (also known as Pr-Set7) was previously reported to monomethylate Lys(20) of histone H4. However, the temporal and spatial control of SET8 activity remains elusive. Here, we provide evidence to support that SET8 monomethylates Lys(20) of histone H4 during S phase by tethering to proliferating cell nuclear antigen via a putative proliferating cell nuclear antigen-interacting protein box. In addition, we show that SET8 function is required for S phase progression. Finally, deletion of SET8 in mice causes embryonic lethality, suggesting that SET8 plays an important role in mammalian embryogenesis.
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ABSTRACT: DNA replication is a tightly regulated process that initiates from multiple replication origins and leads to the faithful transmission of the genetic material. For proper DNA replication, the chromatin surrounding origins needs to be remodeled. However, remarkably little is known on which epigenetic changes are required to allow the firing of replication origins. Here, we show that the histone demethylase KDM5C/JARID1C is required for proper DNA replication at early origins. JARID1C dictates the assembly of the pre-initiation complex, driving the binding to chromatin of the pre-initiation proteins CDC45 and PCNA, through the demethylation of the histone mark H3K4me3. Fork activation and histone H4 acetylation, additional early events involved in DNA replication, are not affected by JARID1C downregulation. All together, these data point to a prominent role for JARID1C in a specific phase of DNA replication in mammalian cells, through its demethylase activity on H3K4me3. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.Nucleic Acids Research 02/2015; DOI:10.1093/nar/gkv090 · 8.81 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Histones and their posttranslational modifications influence the regulation of many DNA-dependent processes. Although an essential role for histone-modifying enzymes in these processes is well established, defining the specific contribution of individual histone residues remains a challenge because many histone-modifying enzymes have nonhistone targets. This challenge is exacerbated by the paucity of suitable approaches to genetically engineer histone genes in metazoans. Here, we describe a platform in Drosophila for generating and analyzing any desired histone genotype, and we use it to test the in vivo function of three histone residues. We demonstrate that H4K20 is neither essential for DNA replication nor for completion of development, unlike inferences drawn from analyses of H4K20 methyltransferases. We also show that H3K36 is required for viability and H3K27 is essential for maintenance of cellular identity but not for gene activation. These findings highlight the power of engineering histones to interrogate genome structure and function in animals. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.Developmental Cell 02/2015; 32(3):373-86. DOI:10.1016/j.devcel.2014.12.025 · 10.37 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) activate a signaling pathway known as the DNA damage response (DDR) which via protein–protein interactions and post-translational modifications recruit signaling proteins, such as 53BP1, to chromatin flanking the lesion. Depletion of the SET8 methyltransferase prevents accumulation of 53BP1 at DSBs; however, this phenotype has been attributed to the role of SET8 in generating H4K20 methylation across the genome, which is required for 53BP1 binding to chromatin, prior to DNA damage. Here, we report that SET8 acts directly at DSBs during the DNA damage response (DDR). SET8 accumulates at DSBs and is enzymatically active at DSBs. Depletion of SET8 just prior to the induction of DNA damage abrogates 53BP1's accumulation at DSBs, suggesting that SET8 acts during DDR. SET8's occupancy at DSBs is regulated by histone deacetylases (HDACs). Finally, SET8 is functionally required for efficient repair of DSBs specifically via the non-homologous end-joining pathway (NHEJ). Our findings reveal that SET8's active role during DDR at DSBs is required for 53BP1's accumulation.EMBO Reports 09/2014; DOI:10.15252/embr.201439434 · 7.86 Impact Factor