Appropriate vs. inappropriate antimicrobial therapy.
ABSTRACT Inappropriate antimicrobial treatment (defined as use of antimicrobial agent to which a pathogen is resistant) or a delay in starting appropriate treatment are both associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Studies of ventilator-associated pneumonia, intra-abdominal infections or bacteraemia document higher mortality in patients who received inappropriate therapy. In addition, the outcome in patients switched from inappropriate to appropriate therapy is better than for patients who remained on inappropriate therapy, but the benefit is not as great as for those who were started on appropriate therapy initially. While inappropriate therapy undoubtedly has an important influence on outcomes, it needs to be considered in the context of other patient risk-factors, such as co-morbid conditions, severity score measures, and functional status. When assessing the impact of inappropriate therapy on outcomes such as length of hospital stay, it is important to be as precise as possible about the time of onset of infection. Failure to do so may lead to inaccurate estimation of the effect of inappropriate therapy. While the likelihood that resistant pathogens can increase costs throughout the healthcare system is generally recognised, an under-appreciated aspect of resistance is its consequences for patients and their carers. Initiatives are underway to gauge the impact of resistance and strategies to combat its spread.
Article: Early changes of procalcitonin may advise about prognosis and appropriateness of antimicrobial therapy in sepsis[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Purpose: The objective of this study is to define if early changes of procalcitonin (PCT) may inform about prognosis and appropriateness of administered therapy in sepsis. Methods: A prospective multicenter observational study was conducted in 289 patients. Blood samples were drawn on day 1, that is, within less than 24 hours from advent of signs of sepsis, and on days 3, 7, and 10. Procalcitonin was estimated in serum by the ultrasensitive Kryptor assay (BRAHMS GmbH, Hennigsdorf, Germany). Patients were divided into the following 2 groups according to the type of change of PCT: group 1, where PCT on day 3 was decreased by more than 30% or was below 0.25 ng/ mL, and group 2, where PCT on day 3 was either increased above 0.25 ng/mL or decreased less than 30%. Results: Death occurred in 12.3% of patients of group 1 and in 29.9% of those of group 2 (P b .0001). Odds ratio for death of patients of group 1 was 0.328. Odds ratio for the administration of inappropriate antimicrobials of patients of group 2 was 2.519 (P = .003). Conclusions: Changes of serum PCT within the first 48 hours reflect the benefit or not of the administered antimicrobial therapy. Serial PCT measurements should be used in clinical practice to guide administration of appropriate antimicrobials.Journal of Critical Care. 01/2011; 26(331):1-331.
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ABSTRACT: Bacterial infections are becoming more difficult to treat. At the present time c. 70% of nosocomial infections are resistant to at least one antimicrobial drug that previously was effective for the causative pathogen. Pathogens that are notorious for their virulence and ability to develop resistance include Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus spp., members of the Enterobacteriaceae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Acinetobacter species. Notable resistance patterns that have emerged include methicillin resistance in S. aureus, which started in the healthcare setting but has now moved into the community. Vancomycin resistance in enterococci is frequently seen, and vancomycin resistance in methicillin-resistant S. aureus is a public health threat. Resistance patterns seen in pseudomonal and Acinetobacter infections are rapidly shifting. The situation has become sufficiently serious for clinical opinion leaders to call upon governments for assistance in addressing the problem. In this worsening environment, in which patients are at progressively greater risk of untreatable infections, clear recommendations for prescribers are urgently needed. Severity of infection and underlying conditions are key issues, as patients with the most serious diseases are those in most urgent need, and improvements in our ability to predict likely infecting pathogens when empirical therapy is necessary are needed. Risk-factors and local resistance patterns must be accounted for, and initial empirical therapy should be adequately broad spectrum and adequately dosed. Agents must be highly active, able to penetrate adequately to the site of infection, safe, and well-tolerated.Clinical Microbiology and Infection 03/2008; 14(s3):22 - 31. · 4.54 Impact Factor