Serum 1,25-dihydroxy vitamin D is inversely associated with body mass index

Institute of Clinical Medicine, University of Tromsø, Tromsø, Norway.
European Journal of Nutrition (Impact Factor: 3.47). 04/2008; 47(2):87-91. DOI: 10.1007/s00394-008-0700-4
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Based on in vitro studies, it has been hypothesized that 1,25-dihydroxy vitamin D (1,25-vit D) may promote weight gain in humans, but previous studies have demonstrated conflicting results regarding the association between serum 1,25-vit D and body mass index (BMI).
To evaluate the relation between serum 1,25-vit D and BMI.
Two thousand one hundred and eighty-seven subjects, recruited from a metabolic and medical lifestyle management clinic, were included in a cross-sectional study. BMI, 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25-OH-vit D) and 1,25-vit D were measured. The cohort was divided according to BMI in five groups (<25, 25-29.9, 30-34.9, 35-39.9 and >39.9 kg/m(2)). Statistical analyses were performed with multiple linear regression models. Age and gender were used as explanatory covariates.
With increasing BMI group, there was a significant decrease in both serum 25-OH-vit D and 1,25-vit D (P<0.001). Those with BMI >39.9 kg/m(2) had 24% lower serum 25-OH-vit D levels and 18% lower 1,25-vit D levels than those with BMI <25 kg/m(2).
There is an inverse association between BMI and the serum levels of 25-OH-vit D and 1,25-vit D. This makes it highly unlikely that high levels of circulating 1,25-vit D contribute to the development of obesity.

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    • "However, increased serum 1,25(OH) 2 D levels along with high serum PTH levels have been reported in obese humans [7] [12]. Conversely, an inverse association between serum 1,25(OH) 2 D levels and BMI was observed in other studies [13] [14]. This evidence suggests that vitamin D metabolism is altered in obesity; however, precise mechanisms have not been elucidated. "
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    • "Also 1,25-hydroxyvitamin D modulates adipogenesis through vitamin D receptor-dependent inhibition of critical molecular components of adipogenesis such as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor í µí»¾ [48]. Data on 1,25(OH) 2 D level are controversial in obese subjects; they are reported to be increased or decreased, probably due to the heterogeneity of the technique used in measuring 1,25(OH) 2 D by immunoassay, which is not totally specific and measures other vitamin D metabolites in serum [49] [50]. The complex biochemical interactions between adipose tissue and vitamin D in vitro raise the question as to whether hypovitaminosis D, itself, may contribute to obesity or inhibit weight loss in vivo. "
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