Serum 1,25-dihydroxy vitamin D is inversely associated with body mass index

Institute of Clinical Medicine, University of Tromsø, Tromsø, Norway.
European Journal of Nutrition (Impact Factor: 3.84). 04/2008; 47(2):87-91. DOI: 10.1007/s00394-008-0700-4
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Based on in vitro studies, it has been hypothesized that 1,25-dihydroxy vitamin D (1,25-vit D) may promote weight gain in humans, but previous studies have demonstrated conflicting results regarding the association between serum 1,25-vit D and body mass index (BMI).
To evaluate the relation between serum 1,25-vit D and BMI.
Two thousand one hundred and eighty-seven subjects, recruited from a metabolic and medical lifestyle management clinic, were included in a cross-sectional study. BMI, 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25-OH-vit D) and 1,25-vit D were measured. The cohort was divided according to BMI in five groups (<25, 25-29.9, 30-34.9, 35-39.9 and >39.9 kg/m(2)). Statistical analyses were performed with multiple linear regression models. Age and gender were used as explanatory covariates.
With increasing BMI group, there was a significant decrease in both serum 25-OH-vit D and 1,25-vit D (P<0.001). Those with BMI >39.9 kg/m(2) had 24% lower serum 25-OH-vit D levels and 18% lower 1,25-vit D levels than those with BMI <25 kg/m(2).
There is an inverse association between BMI and the serum levels of 25-OH-vit D and 1,25-vit D. This makes it highly unlikely that high levels of circulating 1,25-vit D contribute to the development of obesity.

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    • "Also 1,25-hydroxyvitamin D modulates adipogenesis through vitamin D receptor-dependent inhibition of critical molecular components of adipogenesis such as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor í µí»¾ [48]. Data on 1,25(OH) 2 D level are controversial in obese subjects; they are reported to be increased or decreased, probably due to the heterogeneity of the technique used in measuring 1,25(OH) 2 D by immunoassay, which is not totally specific and measures other vitamin D metabolites in serum [49] [50]. The complex biochemical interactions between adipose tissue and vitamin D in vitro raise the question as to whether hypovitaminosis D, itself, may contribute to obesity or inhibit weight loss in vivo. "
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    ABSTRACT: The skin synthesis of vitamin D represents the first step of a metabolic pathway whose features have been extensively studied and clarified in the last decades. In particular, the production of active and inactive forms of the hormone and the actions of the corresponding enzymes have offered new insights into the knowledge of vitamin D metabolism. Additionally, the description of the different organs and tissues expressing the vitamin D receptor and its possible functions, as well as its genetic determinants, have allowed focusing on the interrelationship between vitamin D and many physiological and pathological functions. In this context, many studies reported the association between vitamin D and adipose tissue metabolism, as well as the possible role of the hormone in obesity, weight, and fat mass distribution. Finally, many reports focused on the vitamin D-related effects on skeletal muscle, particularly on the mechanisms by which vitamin D could directly affect muscle mass and strength. This paper is mainly aimed to review vitamin D metabolism and its relationship with obesity and skeletal muscle function.
    International Journal of Endocrinology 08/2014; 2014:841248. DOI:10.1155/2014/841248 · 1.52 Impact Factor
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    • "K. Lee Body composition and vitamin D largely provided a sex-adjusted link between body fat or BMI and serum 25(OH) D level (Harris & Dawson- Hughes, 2007; Konradsen et al., 2008; Young et al., 2009; Beydoun et al., 2010; Cheng et al., 2010), whereas many uncertainties remain for sex difference in these relationships (Snijder et al., 2005; Stewart et al., 2009; Ceglia et al., 2011). For example, Snijder et al. (2005) found a substantial difference in these associations between men and women in 453 participants of the Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam study who were aged ! "
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The present study aimed to assess the association of total and regional body fat percentage (FP) and lean mass (LM) with vitamin D deficiency {serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] <20 ng mL(-1) } using the data of the Fourth Korea National Health And Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES IV). METHODS: Subjects were participants of the KNHANES IV conducted in 2009 and were aged ≥19 years. In 6791 participants, serum 25(OH)D, body composition [body mass index, waist circumference, and total and regional (trunk and legs) FP and LM by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry] were measured. Confounders (age, residential place, housing status, occupation, smoking, alcohol use, physical activity, medical history and calcium intake per day) were assessed. RESULTS: After adjusting for confounders, vitamin D deficiency was significantly associated with FP with the odds ratios (ORs) from 1.09 to 1.20, and LM with the ORs from 0.81 to 0.87 in men. In men, serum 25(OH)D remained inversely associated with FP tertiles after adjustment for LM, and positively with LM tertiles after adjustment for FP. When FM tertiles and LM tertiles were combined in men, the OR for vitamin D deficiency was 2.2 (P < 0.05) in the combined subgroup of highest total FM tertile and lowest total LM tertile compared to the subgroup of lowest total FM tertile and highest total LM tertile. However, these associations were nonsignificant or inconsistent in women. CONCLUSIONS: The associations of vitamin D deficiency with body fat and lean mass were significant in Korean men but were inconsistent in Korean women.
    Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics 03/2013; 26. DOI:10.1111/jhn.12047 · 2.07 Impact Factor
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    • "Several studies have demonstrated that serum 25(OH)D concentrations are inversely correlated with measures of obesity such as body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, and subcutaneous and visceral fat [6] [7] [8] [9] [10]. "
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    ABSTRACT: A cohort of 66 healthy overweight and obese patients, 53 women and 13 men were examined. Waist circumference and fasting 25(OH)D, insulin, glucose, lipid (cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, and triglyceride), C-reactive protein (CRP), and complement 3 (C3), and 4 (C4) serum concentrations were measured. Insulin resistance was assessed by the homeostasis model assessment (HOMAIR). Results. 25(OH)D levels showed a significant negative correlation with BMI (P < 0.01), waist circumference (P < 0.05), fasting insulin (P < 0.01), HOMAIR (P < 0.01), triglycerides (P < 0.01), CRP (P < 0.01), C3 (P < 0.05), and C4 (P < 0.05). Multiple regression analyses were performed with 25(OH)D as the dependent variable and BMI (or waist circumferences), fasting insulin (or HOMAIR), triglycerides, and CRP (or C3 or C4) as independent variables. Only insulin or HOMAIR maintained a significant independent association with 25(OH)D levels, whereas vitamin D did not maintain a significant independent association with CRP or C3 or C4 concentrations. Conclusions. The present study, performed in overweight and obese subjects, shows that 25(OH)D levels are negatively associated with inflammatory parameters such as CRP and C3 and C4 levels, but not independently of BMI, body fat distribution, insulin levels, or insulin resistance. Our results suggest that hyperinsulinemia and/or insulin resistance are directly responsible for decrease of 25(OH)D levels in obesity.
    01/2013; 2013:921348. DOI:10.1155/2013/921348
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