Article

Dysfunctional interferon-α production by peripheral plasmacytoid dendritic cells upon Toll-like receptor-9 stimulation in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus

Department of Medicine, Division of Rheumatology, Center for Rheumatic Diseases and Rheumatism Research Center, Catholic Research Institutes of Medical Sciences, Catholic University of Korea, Seoul.
Arthritis research & therapy (Impact Factor: 4.12). 02/2008; 10(2):R29. DOI: 10.1186/ar2382
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT It is well known that interferon (IFN)-alpha is important to the pathogenesis of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). However, several reports have indicated that the number of IFN-alpha producing cells are decreased or that their function is defective in patients with SLE. We studied the function of plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) under persistent stimulation of Toll-like receptor (TLR)9 via a TLR9 ligand (CpG ODN2216) or SLE serum.
The concentrations of IFN-alpha were determined in serum and culture supernatant of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from SLE patients and healthy controls after stimulation with CpG ODN2216 or SLE serum. The numbers of circulating pDCs were analyzed by fluoresence-activated cell sorting analysis. pDCs were treated with CpG ODN2216 and SLE serum repeatedly, and levels of produced IFN-alpha were measured. The expression of IFN-alpha signature genes and inhibitory molecules of TLR signaling were examined in PBMCs from SLE patients and healthy control individuals.
Although there was no significant difference in serum concentration of IFN-alpha and number of circulating pDCs between SLE patients and healthy control individuals, the IFN-alpha producing capacity of PBMCs was significantly reduced in SLE patients. Interestingly, the degree which TLR9 ligand-induced IFN-alpha production in SLE PBMCs was inversely correlated with the SLE serum-induced production of IFN-alpha in healthy PMBCs. Because repeated stimulation pDCs with TLR9 ligands showed decreased level of IFN-alpha production, continuous TLR9 stimulation may lead to decreased production of IFN-alpha in SLE PBMCs. In addition, PBMCs isolated from SLE patients exhibited higher expression of IFN-alpha signature genes and inhibitory molecules of TLR signaling, indicating that these cells had already undergone IFN-alpha stimulation and had become desensitized to TLR signaling.
We suggest that the persistent presence of endogenous IFN-alpha inducing factors induces TLR tolerance in pDCs of SLE patients, leading to impaired production of IFN-alpha.

0 Followers
 · 
118 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Objectives To analyse the influence of IFNα on TNFα production by human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), as well as the possible interference of this cytokine on the effect of antimalarial drugs, TNFα regulators widely used in the treatment of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Methods PBMCs, monocytes or T cells were treated with IFNα alone or simultaneously to cellular stimuli as well as in the presence or absence of chloroquine. Supernatants from such cultures were collected to quantify TNFα by ELISA. TNFα and STAT4 expression in cultured cells were analysed by intracellular flow cytometry. In addition, STAT4 gene expression and serum levels of TNFα and IFNα were quantified in 53 SLE patients and 45 controls. Results IFNα alone did not modify significantly TNFα production, but an increase was observed in stimulated PBMC. Further analyses showed that monocytes were the cellular population responsible for this effect. In addition, IFNα treatment increased STAT4 in stimulated monocytes, suggesting that TNFα upregulation could be mediated by STAT4. On the other hand, the analysis of the antimalarial effect showed that chloroquine was able to inhibit in vitro the expression of TNFα and STAT4 enhanced by IFNα. In antimalarial-treated SLE patients, however, only those with high IFNα serum levels presented lower expression of STAT4. Conclusions IFNα treatment enhances the induction of TNFα and STAT4 in stimulated monocytes, an effect inhibited in vitro by chloroquine treatment. However, the consequence of antimalarial treatment on SLE patients could be different depending on their IFNα serum levels.
    Cytokine 05/2014; 67(1):13–20. DOI:10.1016/j.cyto.2014.02.002 · 2.87 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a complex autoimmune disease characterized by the loss of tolerance to self-nuclear antigens. The symptoms of SLE, progression of pathology and the array of autoantibodies present in the serum differ significantly from patient to patient, which calls for a personalized approach to treatment. SLE is polygenic and strongly influenced by gender, ethnicity, and environmental factors. Data from genome-wide association studies suggests that polymorphisms in as many as 100 genes contribute to SLE susceptibility. Recent research has focused on genes associated with Toll-like receptors (TLRs), type I interferons, immune regulation pathways, and immune-complex clearance. TLR7 and TLR9 have been extensively studied using lupus-prone mouse models. In multiple systems overexpression of TLR7 drives disease progression but interestingly, a loss of TLR9 results in an almost identical phenotype. While TLR7 overexpression has been linked to human SLE, the possible role of TLR9 in human disease remains elusive. In the present review, we focus on TLR polymorphisms and TLR expression in SLE patients and discuss their potential as biomarkers for individualized treatment.
    Frontiers in Pharmacology 12/2014; 5:265. DOI:10.3389/fphar.2014.00265
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Introduction: Plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) play not only a central role in the antiviral immune response in innate host defense, but also a pathogenic role in the development of the autoimmune process by their ability to produce robust amounts of type I interferons (IFNs), through sensing nucleic acids by toll-like receptor (TLR) 7 and 9. Thus, control of dysregulated pDC activation and type I IFN production provide an alternative treatment strategy for autoimmune diseases in which type I IFNs are elevated, such as systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Here we focused on IκB kinase inhibitor BAY 11-7082 (BAY11) and investigated its immunomodulatory effects in targeting the IFN response on pDCs. Methods: We isolated human blood pDCs by flow cytometry and examined the function of BAY11 on pDCs in response to TLR ligands, with regards to pDC activation, such as IFN-α production and nuclear translocation of interferon regulatory factor 7 (IRF7) in vitro. Additionally, we cultured healthy peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) with serum from SLE patients in the presence or absence of BAY11, and then examined the inhibitory function of BAY11 on SLE serum-induced IFN-α production. We also examined its inhibitory effect in vivo using mice pretreated with BAY11 intraperitonealy, followed by intravenous injection of TLR7 ligand poly U. Results: Here we identified that BAY11 has the ability to inhibit nuclear translocation of IRF7 and IFN-α production in human pDCs. BAY11, although showing the ability to also interfere with tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α production, more strongly inhibited IFN-α production than TNF-α production by pDCs, in response to TLR ligands. We also found that BAY11 inhibited both in vitro IFN-α production by human PBMCs induced by the SLE serum and the in vivo serum IFN-α level induced by injecting mice with poly U. Conclusions: These findings suggest that BAY11 has the therapeutic potential to attenuate the IFN environment by regulating pDC function and provide a novel foundation for the development of an effective immunotherapeutic strategy against autoimmune disorders such as SLE.

Full-text (4 Sources)

Download
10 Downloads
Available from
May 23, 2014