Population genetic analyses of Hypoplectrus coral reef fishes provide evidence that local processes are operating during the early stages of marine adaptive radiations

Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute, Apartado Postal 0843-03092, Balboa, Ancon, Panama.
Molecular Ecology (Impact Factor: 6.49). 04/2008; 17(6):1405-15. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-294X.2007.03654.x
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Large-scale, spatially explicit models of adaptive radiation suggest that the spatial genetic structure within a species sampled early in the evolutionary history of an adaptive radiation might be higher than the genetic differentiation between different species formed during the same radiation over all locations. Here we test this hypothesis with a spatial population genetic analysis of Hypoplectrus coral reef fishes (Serranidae), one of the few potential cases of a recent adaptive radiation documented in the marine realm. Microsatellite analyses of Hypoplectrus puella (barred hamlet) and Hypoplectrus nigricans (black hamlet) from Belize, Panama and Barbados validate the population genetic predictions at the regional scale for H. nigricans despite the potential for high levels of gene flow between populations resulting from the 3-week planktonic larval phase of Hypoplectrus. The results are different for H. puella, which is characterized by significantly lower levels of spatial genetic structure than H. nigricans. An extensive field survey of Hypoplectrus population densities complemented by individual-based simulations shows that the higher abundance and more continuous distribution of H. puella could account for the reduced spatial genetic structure within this species. The genetic and demographic data are also consistent with the hypothesis that H. puella might represent the ancestral form of the Hypoplectrus radiation, and that H. nigricans might have evolved repeatedly from H. puella through ecological speciation. Altogether, spatial genetic analysis within and between Hypoplectrus species indicate that local processes can operate at a regional scale within recent marine adaptive radiations.

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Available from: Frédéric Guichard, Sep 26, 2015
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    • "Adaptive radiations need to fulfill three requirements: multiplication of species and common descent, adaptation, and extraordinary diversification (Glor, 2010). There are relatively few described cases in marine fishes, such as the New Zealand triplefins (Hickey et al., 2009), California Sebastes rockfish (Johns and Avise, 1998), Antarctic notothenioids (Janko et al., 2011), Caribbean hamlets (Puebla et al., 2008) and South African clinids (von der Heyden et al., 2011). The paucity of adaptive radiations in marine fishes may be due to a number of factors including life history characteristics that are conducive to panmixia (Bernardi, 2013). "
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    ABSTRACT: The radiation of surfperches (Embiotocidae) in the temperate North Pacific has been suggested to be the product of ecological competition and niche partitioning. Surfperches are a family of viviparous marine fishes, which have been used to study multiple paternity, sperm competition, and population genetics. Phylogenetic inference is essential for interpreting the evolutionary context of embiotocid life history traits and testing alternative scenarios, yet previous studies have yielded phylogenies with low support and incongruent topologies. Here we constructed reduced representation genomic libraries using restriction-site associated DNA (RAD) sequence markers to infer phylogenetic relationships among all genera and 22 out of 24 embiotocid species. Orthologous markers retained across 91% of sampled species, corresponding to 523 loci, yielded trees with the highest support values. Our results support a scenario where embiotocids first diverged into clades associated with sandy and reef habitats during the middle Miocene (13-18 Mya) with subsequent invasions of novel habitats in the reef associated clade, and northern range expansion in the Northwest Pacific. The appearance of California kelp forests (Laminariales) in the late Miocene (8 - 15 Mya) correlates with further proliferation in the reef associated clade. In all cases, radiations occurred within specific habitats, a pattern consistent with niche partitioning. We infer fine scale species relationships among surfperches with confidence and corroborate the utility of RAD data for phylogenetic inference in young lineages. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.
    Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 04/2015; 88. DOI:10.1016/j.ympev.2015.03.027 · 3.92 Impact Factor
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    • "Sampling locations were selected a priori based on predictions of biophysical models of larval dispersal (Cowen et al. 2006, Galindo et al. 2006) and genetic studies (Galindo et al. 2006, Acosta et al. Proceedings of the 65 th Gulf and Caribbean Fisheries Institute November 5 – 9, 2012 Santa Marta, Colombia 2008, Puebla et al. 2008, Landínez-García et al. 2009, Salas et al. 2010) across four regions: Region I. Colombian coastal areas (San Bernardo and Rosario archipelagos, and Tortugas Bank); Region II. San Andres archipelagosouthern section (South-South-West and East-South-East atolls); Region III. "
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    ABSTRACT: Genetic connectivity among populations is of crucial importance in conservation and management of commercial threatened species. Here, we explored genetic connectivity and diversity from 490 queen conch Strombus gigas from nine oceanic atolls within the San Andres archipelago and three coastal islands closer to the colombian continental shelf (separated by more than 600 kilometers from the Archipelago), in the Southwestern Caribbean. Genetic differentiation was analyzed using the statistic ΦST provided by an analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) and by a spatial analysis of molecular variance (SAMOVA). Correlation between genetic and geographic distance was explored by using Mantel test. All loci were polymorphic with high number of alleles per locus and showed deficit of heterozygosity departing from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. We found evidence for up to four different genetic stocks without indication of isolation by distance. Based on these results, the recovery of S. gigas in the Southwest- ern Caribbean should require management considerations that address local and regional actions.
    65thConference Of The Gulf And Caribbean Fisheries Institute; 11/2012
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    • "For many reef fishes, coloration is a key character involved in mate recognition and therefore subject to strong sexual selection (Seehausen et al. 1997, 1999). As one example, strong preference for mating with their own morphotype (assortative mating) appears to have played a role in maintaining evolutionarily stable color polymorphisms in Caribbean hamlets (Hypoplectrus complex; Puebla et al. 2008; Holt et al. 2011). "
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    ABSTRACT: The delineation of reef fish species by colora-tion is problematic, particularly for the pygmy angelfishes (genus Centropyge), whose vivid colors are sometimes the only characters available for taxonomic classification. The Lemonpeel Angelfish (Centropyge flavissima) has Pacific and Indian Ocean forms separated by approximately 3,000 km and slight differences in coloration. These disjunct populations hybridize with Eibl's Angelfish (Centropyge eibli) in the eastern Indian Ocean and the Pearl-Scaled Angelfish (Centropyge vrolikii) in the western Pacific. To resolve the evolutionary history of these species and color morphs, we employed mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) cytochrome b and three nuclear introns (TMO, RAG2, and S7). Phylogenetic analyses reveal three deep mtDNA lineages (d = 7.0–8.3 %) that conform not to species designation or color morph but to geographic region: (1) most Pacific C. flavissima plus C. vrolikii, (2) C. flavissima from the Society Islands in French Polynesia, and (3) Indian Ocean C. flavissima plus C. eibli. In con-trast, the nuclear introns each show a cluster of closely related alleles, with frequency differences between the three geographic groups. Hence, the mtDNA phylogeny reveals a period of isolation (ca. 3.5–4.2 million years) typical of congeneric species, whereas the within-lineage mtDNA U ST values and the nuclear DNA data reveal recent or ongoing gene flow between species. We conclude that an ancient divergence of C. flavissima, recorded in the non-recombining mtDNA, was subsequently swamped by introgression and hybridization in two of the three regions, with only the Society Islands retaining the original C. flavissima haplotypes among our sample locations. Alternatively, the yellow color pattern of C. flavissima may have appeared independently in the central Pacific Ocean and eastern Indian Ocean. Regardless of how the pattern arose, C. flavissima seems to be retaining species identity where it interbreeds with C. vrolikii and C. eibli, and sexual or natural selection may help to maintain color differences despite apparent gene flow.
    Coral Reefs 09/2012; 31:839-851. DOI:10.1007/s00338-012-0907-y · 3.32 Impact Factor
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