Identification of a glycine motif required for packing in EmrE, a multidrug transporter from Escherichia coli.
ABSTRACT Glycine residues may play functional and structural roles in membrane proteins. In this work we studied the role of glycine residues in EmrE, a small multidrug transporter from Escherichia coli. EmrE extrudes various drugs across the plasma membrane in exchange with protons and, as a result, confers resistance against their toxic effects. Each of 12 glycine residues was replaced by site-directed mutagenesis. Four of the 12 glycine residues in EmrE are evolutionary conserved within the small multidrug resistance family of multidrug transporters. Our analysis reveals that only two (Gly-67 and Gly-97) of these four highly conserved residues are essential for transporter activity. Moreover, two glycine positions that are less conserved, Gly-17 and Gly-90, demonstrate also a nil phenotype when substituted. Our present results identifying Gly-17 and Gly-67 as irreplaceable reinforce the importance of previously defined functional clusters. Two essential glycine residues, Gly-90 and Gly-97, form a protein motif in which glycine residues are separated by six other residues (GG7). Upon substitution of glycine in these positions, the protein ability to form dimers is impaired as evaluated by cross-linking and pull-down experiments.
Article: Induction of multidrug resistance mechanism in Escherichia coli biofilms by interplay between tetracycline and ampicillin resistance genes.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Biofilms gain resistance to various antimicrobial agents, and the presence of antibiotic resistance genes is thought to contribute to a biofilm-mediated antibiotic resistance. Here we showed the interplay between the tetracycline resistance efflux pump TetA(C) and the ampicillin resistance gene (bla(TEM-1)) in biofilms of Escherichia coli harboring pBR322 in the presence of the mixture of ampicillin and tetracycline. E. coli in the biofilms could obtain the high-level resistance to ampicillin, tetracycline, penicillin, erythromycin, and chloramphenicol during biofilm development and maturation as a result of the interplay between the marker genes on the plasmids, the increase of plasmid copy number, and consequently the induction of the efflux systems on the bacterial chromosome, especially the EmrY/K and EvgA/S pumps. In addition, we characterized the overexpression of the TetA(C) pump that contributed to osmotic stress response and was involved in the induction of capsular colanic acid production, promoting formation of mature biofilms. However, this investigated phenomenon was highly dependent on the addition of the subinhibitory concentrations of antibiotic mixture, and the biofilm resistance behavior was limited to aminoglycoside antibiotics. Thus, marker genes on plasmids played an important role in both resistance of biofilm cells to antibiotics and in formation of mature biofilms, as they could trigger specific chromosomal resistance mechanisms to confer a high-level resistance during biofilm formation.Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 09/2009; 53(11):4628-39. · 4.84 Impact Factor
Article: Modulation of substrate efflux in bacterial small multidrug resistance proteins by mutations at the dimer interface.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Bacteria evade the effects of cytotoxic compounds through the efflux activity of membrane-bound transporters such as the small multidrug resistance (SMR) proteins. Consisting typically of ca. 110 residues with four transmembrane (TM) α-helices, crystallographic studies have shown that TM helix 1 (TM1) through TM helix 3 (TM3) of each monomer create a substrate binding "pocket" within the membrane bilayer, while a TM4-TM4 interaction accounts for the primary dimer formation. Previous work from our lab has characterized a highly conserved small-residue heptad motif in the Halobacterium salinarum transporter Hsmr as (90)GLXLIXXGV(98) that lies along the TM4-TM4 dimer interface of SMR proteins as required for function. Focusing on conserved positions 91, 93, 94, and 98, we substituted the naturally occurring Hsmr residue for Ala, Phe, Ile, Leu, Met, and Val at each position in the Hsmr TM4-TM4 interface. Large-residue replacements were studied for their ability to dimerize on SDS-polyacrylamide gels, to bind the cytotoxic compound ethidium bromide, and to confer resistance by efflux. Although the relative activity of mutants did not correlate with dimer strength for all mutants, all functional mutants lay within 10% of dimerization relative to the wild type (WT), suggesting that the optimal dimer strength at TM4 is required for proper efflux. Furthermore, nonfunctional substitutions at the center of the dimerization interface that do not alter dimer strength suggest a dynamic TM4-TM4 "pivot point" that responds to the efflux requirements of different substrates. This functionally critical region represents a potential target for inhibiting the ability of bacteria to evade the effects of cytotoxic compounds.Journal of bacteriology 09/2011; 193(21):5929-35. · 3.94 Impact Factor
Article: Drug efflux by a small multidrug resistance protein is inhibited by a transmembrane peptide.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Drug-resistant bacteria use several families of membrane-embedded transporters to remove antibiotics from the cell. One such family is the small multidrug resistance proteins (SMRs) that, because of their relatively small size (ca. 110 residues with four transmembrane [TM] helices), must form (at least) dimers to efflux drugs. Here, we use a Lys-tagged synthetic peptide with exactly the same sequence as TM4 of the full-length SMR Hsmr from Halobacterium salinarum [TM4 sequence: AcA(Sar)(3)-VAGVVGLALIVAGVVVLNVAS-KKK (Sar = N-methylglycine)] to compete with and disrupt the native TM4-TM4 interactions believed to constitute the locus of Hsmr dimerization. Using a cellular efflux assay of the fluorescent SMR substrate ethidium bromide, we determined that bacterial cells containing Hsmr are able to remove cellular ethidium via first-order exponential decay with a rate constant (k) of 10.1 × 10(-3) ± 0.7 × 10(-3) s(-1). Upon treatment of the cells with the TM4 peptide, we observed a saturable ~60% decrease in the efflux rate constant to 3.7 × 10(-3) ± 0.2 × 10(-3) s(-1). In corresponding experiments with control peptides, including scrambled sequences and a sequence with d-chirality, a decrease in ethidium efflux either was not observed or was marginal, likely from nonspecific effects. The designed peptides did not evoke bacterial lysis, indicating that they act via the α-helicity and membrane insertion propensities of the native TM4 helix. Our overall results suggest that this approach could conceivably be used to design hydrophobic peptides for disruption of key TM-TM interactions of membrane proteins and represent a valuable route to the discovery of new therapeutics.Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 04/2012; 56(7):3911-6. · 4.84 Impact Factor