Escherichia coli colonizes the human gastrointestinal tract and produces a variety of diseases. Escherichia coli O157 is one of the most important pathogenic strains reported from food-borne illnesses leading to enterohemorrhagic colitis. The National Salmonella and Escherichia Centre is a national reference centre for Salmonella and Escherichia for India; it receives samples from research laboratories, hospitals and institutions for serological identification. The present study is an epidemiological survey of E. coli O157 in different regions of India. The data are based on samples received from humans, food items, animals and the environment. A total of 17 093 isolates cultured from samples were received during the 10-year period of which 5678 were from human sources. Thirty (0.5%) human samples were positive for E. coli O157. A significantly high percentage of E. coli O157 were isolated from meat (0.9%, 13/1376), milk and milk products (1.8%, 10/553), seafood (8.4%, 16/190) and water (1.6%, 8/486). The isolates were found to be distributed among domestic and wild animals, and the maximum number of isolates of E. coli O157 was detected in samples received from coastal belt areas. Escherichia coli O157 is widely distributed among humans and animals, food and environment in different geographical regions of India.
"Drinking water and recreational water have been implicated in the transmission of pathogens, and it was opined that the source of contamination could be either sewage or infected animals (Muniesa et al., 2006; Sehgal et al., 2008). A number of bacteria species, including coliforms and Listeria can be present in the Intestines of some humans and animals, including birds without causing infection (Ramaswany et al., 2007). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Untreated abattoir effluent constitutes a reservoir for the spread of intestinal pathogens and Listeria species (though rarely considered), is one of such organisms. This study was therefore conducted to determine the status of these bacteria and others in abattoir effluent, in Lagos, Nigeria. Thirty samples of abattoir effluent were collected over a period of 6 weeks at the government central abattoir in Lagos, Nigeria. Each sample was serially diluted and pour-plated on Nutrient Agar, MacConkey Agar and Listeria Selective Agar. Mesophilic aerobic counts were enumerated. Isolated bacterial colonies were identified by standard methods and antimicrobial susceptibility test conducted using the disk diffusion technique. Heavy loads of Listeria species, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella, sp., Enterococcus faecalis, and Pseudomonas, aeruginosa, were isolated from all the samples. The antibiotic susceptibility pattern of these bacterial organisms revealed marked resistance to most of the antimicrobial agents tested. With the exception of Pseudomonas, there was no statistically significant difference between the antimicrobial resistance rate of Listeria and other bacteria isolates (P >0.05). The public health significance of these findings, particularly the abattoir effluent bacteria potential capability of transferring disease and antibiotic resistance to man, as well as the challenges posed to disease treatment was highlighted.
"According to the result of serotyping, O4 (12%) was predominant, followed by O5 (8%), O60 (8%), R (6.6%), O41 (5.3%), O59, O1 (4%), O22, O21, O102, O103, O116, O69, O91 (2.6%), and O157, O34, O35, O37, O20, O141, O103, O104, O49, O148, O64, O153 (1.3%). When an analysis of the geographic distribution of E. coli O157 was done by Sehgal et al. , it was observed to be widely distributed in all parts of India showing wide prevalence of this strain in almost all regions of the country and 1.1% of O157 isolates were from Kerala. Though food- and water-borne diarrheal diseases are very common in the study area, the investigations are usually limited to characterisation of E. coli alone. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study aimed at detecting the prevalence of antibiotic-resistant serotypes of Escherichia coli in Cochin estuary, India. E. coli strains were isolated during the period January 2010-December 2011 from five different stations set at Cochin estuary. Water samples from five different stations in Cochin estuary were collected on a monthly basis for a period of two years. Isolates were serotyped, antibiogram-phenotyped for twelve antimicrobial agents, and genotyped by polymerase chain reaction for uid gene that codes for β-D-glucuronidase. These E. coli strains from Cochin estuary were tested against twelve antibiotics to determine the prevalence of multiple antibiotic resistance among them. The results revealed that more than 53.33% of the isolates were multiple antibiotic resistant. Thirteen isolates showed resistance to sulphonamides and two of them contained the sul 1 gene. Class 1 integrons were detected in two E. coli strains which were resistant to more than seven antibiotics. In the present study, O serotyping, antibiotic sensitivity, and polymerase chain reaction were employed with the purpose of establishing the present distribution of multiple antibiotic-resistant serotypes, associated with E. coli isolated from different parts of Cochin estuary.
Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases 09/2012; 2012:124879. DOI:10.1155/2012/124879
"Most STEC disease has been described in the United States, Europe, Australia, South America, and parts of Asia. Although STEC infections are very rare in India, it has been detected in meat and fish samples indicating that this pathogen may pose a public health threat in the near future. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Diarrheal diseases are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in resource-limited countries. Among the bacterial pathogens, diarrheagenic E. coli (DEC) are most frequently implicated in cases of epidemic and endemic diarrhea worldwide. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of DEC in stool specimens from patients with acute diarrhea using polymerase chain reaction (PCR).
Escherichia coli stool samples were collected from 115 hospitalized children and adults with acute diarrhea in Mangalore, a coastal city, in southern India. PCR amplification of eae, bfp, stx, ehx genes were used for detection of enteropathogenic (EPEC) and shigatoxigenic E. coli (STEC), lt and st genes were used for enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) and astA gene for enteroaggregative E. coli (EAEC).
During the 24 month study period, of the 115 stool samples, DEC type was detected in 20 (17.4%) using the PCR method. The most prevalent DEC was atypical EPEC accounting for 12 (10.4%) cases followed by 4 cases of EAEC (3.4%) and 4 of STEC (3.4%). No ETEC strains were isolated from any of the examined stool samples.
This study suggests that the atypical EPEC are the newly emerging group among DEC stains in Southern India. Further studies are needed to evaluate the epidemiology and virulence properties of atypical EPEC strains.
Journal of laboratory physicians 03/2012; 4(1):24-9. DOI:10.4103/0974-2727.98666
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