Prevalence and geographical distribution of Escherichia coli O157 in India: a 10-year survey.

National Salmonella and Escherichia Centre, Central Research Institute, Kasauli (H.P.) 173204, India.
Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene (Impact Factor: 1.93). 05/2008; 102(4):380-3. DOI: 10.1016/j.trstmh.2008.01.015
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Escherichia coli colonizes the human gastrointestinal tract and produces a variety of diseases. Escherichia coli O157 is one of the most important pathogenic strains reported from food-borne illnesses leading to enterohemorrhagic colitis. The National Salmonella and Escherichia Centre is a national reference centre for Salmonella and Escherichia for India; it receives samples from research laboratories, hospitals and institutions for serological identification. The present study is an epidemiological survey of E. coli O157 in different regions of India. The data are based on samples received from humans, food items, animals and the environment. A total of 17 093 isolates cultured from samples were received during the 10-year period of which 5678 were from human sources. Thirty (0.5%) human samples were positive for E. coli O157. A significantly high percentage of E. coli O157 were isolated from meat (0.9%, 13/1376), milk and milk products (1.8%, 10/553), seafood (8.4%, 16/190) and water (1.6%, 8/486). The isolates were found to be distributed among domestic and wild animals, and the maximum number of isolates of E. coli O157 was detected in samples received from coastal belt areas. Escherichia coli O157 is widely distributed among humans and animals, food and environment in different geographical regions of India.

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Abstract Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) are foodborne pathogens of worldwide importance, but a shortage of data exists for STEC isolation from India. Therefore, an epidemiological and environmental study that covers a large geographic area in north India was conducted. Ruminant stool samples (n=650) were collected from 59 dairies. Meat samples (n=450) were collected from local abattoirs and the main slaughterhouse of the region. Additionally, 600 human cases of diarrhea and hemolytic uremic syndrome were screened for STEC. Isolates were characterized for the virulence gene profiles and for the serogroups and were submitted to molecular typing by the multilocus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis (MLVA). Overall, 12.3% of animal stool samples and 6.3% of mutton samples (n=160) were positive for STEC. Additionally, STEC were isolated from 1.7% and 1.6% of watery (n=290) and bloody (n=310) stool specimens, respectively. Animal stool isolates were significantly more prevalent in hilly areas (p<0.05) than in plain areas. Polymerase chain reaction demonstrated the presence of stx1, stx2, hly, espP, saa, toxB, and iha genes in 117 (83.5%), 94 (67.1%), 77 (55%), 33 (23%), 62 (44.2%), 29 (20.7%), and 51 (36%) of the isolates, respectively. Five new serogroups (O55, O33, O173, O165, and O136) are being reported for the first time from India. Four isolates from serogroup O103 were found in mutton and stool specimens of cattle and humans (n=160). One isolate from serogroup O104 was isolated from a mutton sample. MLVA suggested the potential transmission of STEC from contaminated meat and bovine sources. This study confirms the frequent contamination of mutton samples (24%), whereas chicken and pork samples were negative for STEC. This study demonstrates the presence of STEC that carry a large repertoire of virulence genes and the potential transmission of STEC from contaminated mutton and animal stools in north India.
    Foodborne Pathogens and Disease 05/2014; 11(6). DOI:10.1089/fpd.2013.1613 · 2.09 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Untreated abattoir effluent constitutes a reservoir for the spread of intestinal pathogens and Listeria species (though rarely considered), is one of such organisms. This study was therefore conducted to determine the status of these bacteria and others in abattoir effluent, in Lagos, Nigeria. Thirty samples of abattoir effluent were collected over a period of 6 weeks at the government central abattoir in Lagos, Nigeria. Each sample was serially diluted and pour-plated on Nutrient Agar, MacConkey Agar and Listeria Selective Agar. Mesophilic aerobic counts were enumerated. Isolated bacterial colonies were identified by standard methods and antimicrobial susceptibility test conducted using the disk diffusion technique. Heavy loads of Listeria species, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella, sp., Enterococcus faecalis, and Pseudomonas, aeruginosa, were isolated from all the samples. The antibiotic susceptibility pattern of these bacterial organisms revealed marked resistance to most of the antimicrobial agents tested. With the exception of Pseudomonas, there was no statistically significant difference between the antimicrobial resistance rate of Listeria and other bacteria isolates (P >0.05). The public health significance of these findings, particularly the abattoir effluent bacteria potential capability of transferring disease and antibiotic resistance to man, as well as the challenges posed to disease treatment was highlighted.
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Abstract Objectives: Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) are an important cause of foodborne disease, yet global estimates of disease burden do not exist. Our objective was to estimate the global annual number of illnesses due to pathogenic STEC, and resultant hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS), end-stage renal disease (ESRD), and death. Materials: We searched Medline, Scopus, SIGLE/OpenGrey, and CABI and World Health Organization (WHO) databases for studies of STEC incidence in the general population, published between January 1, 1990 and April 30, 2012, in all languages. We searched health institution websites for notifiable disease data and reports, cross-referenced citations, and consulted international knowledge experts. We employed an a priori hierarchical study selection process and synthesized results using a stochastic simulation model to account for uncertainty inherent in the data. Results: We identified 16 articles and databases from 21 countries, from 10 of the 14 WHO Sub-Regions. We estimated that STEC causes 2,801,000 acute illnesses annually (95% Credible Interval [Cr.I.]: 1,710,000; 5,227,000), and leads to 3890 cases of HUS (95% Cr.I.: 2400; 6700), 270 cases of ESRD (95% Cr.I.: 20; 800), and 230 deaths (95% Cr.I.: 130; 420). Sensitivity analyses indicated these estimates are likely conservative. Conclusions: These are the first estimates of the global incidence of STEC-related illnesses, which have not been explicitly included in previous global burden of disease estimations. Compared to other pathogens with a foodborne transmission component, STEC appears to cause more cases than alveolar echinococcosis each year, but less than typhoid fever, foodborne trematodes, and nontyphoidal salmonellosis. Applications: Given the persistence of STEC globally, efforts aimed at reducing the burden of foodborne disease should consider the relative contribution of STEC in the target population.
    Foodborne Pathogens and Disease 04/2014; 11(6). DOI:10.1089/fpd.2013.1704 · 2.09 Impact Factor