Prevalence and geographical distribution of Escherichia coli O157 in India: a 10-year survey.
ABSTRACT Escherichia coli colonizes the human gastrointestinal tract and produces a variety of diseases. Escherichia coli O157 is one of the most important pathogenic strains reported from food-borne illnesses leading to enterohemorrhagic colitis. The National Salmonella and Escherichia Centre is a national reference centre for Salmonella and Escherichia for India; it receives samples from research laboratories, hospitals and institutions for serological identification. The present study is an epidemiological survey of E. coli O157 in different regions of India. The data are based on samples received from humans, food items, animals and the environment. A total of 17 093 isolates cultured from samples were received during the 10-year period of which 5678 were from human sources. Thirty (0.5%) human samples were positive for E. coli O157. A significantly high percentage of E. coli O157 were isolated from meat (0.9%, 13/1376), milk and milk products (1.8%, 10/553), seafood (8.4%, 16/190) and water (1.6%, 8/486). The isolates were found to be distributed among domestic and wild animals, and the maximum number of isolates of E. coli O157 was detected in samples received from coastal belt areas. Escherichia coli O157 is widely distributed among humans and animals, food and environment in different geographical regions of India.
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ABSTRACT: The aims of this study were to determine the prevalence of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) strains in pigs as a possible STEC reservoir in India as well as to characterize the STEC strains and to determine the antimicrobial resistance pattern of the strains. A total of 782 E. coli isolates from clinically healthy (n = 473) and diarrhoeic piglets (309) belonging to major pig-producing states of India were screened by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay for the presence of virulence genes characteristic for STEC, that is, Shiga toxin-producing gene(s) (stx1, stx2), intimin (eae), enterohemolysin (hlyA) and STEC autoagglutinating adhesin (Saa). Overall STEC were detected in 113 (14.4 %) piglets, and the prevalence of E. coli O157 and non-O157 STEC were 4 (0.5 %) and 109 (13.9 %), respectively. None of the O157 STEC isolates carried gene encoding for H7 antigen (fliCh7). The various combinations of virulence genes present in the strains studied were stx1 in 4.6 %, stx1 in combination with stx2 gene in 5.1 %, stx1 in combination with stx2 and ehxA in 0.6 %, stx1 in combination with stx2 and eae in 0.2 % and stx2 alone in 3.7 %. All STEC isolates were found negative for STEC autoagglutinating adhesin (Saa). The number of STEC isolates which showed resistance to antimicrobials such as ampicillin, tetracycline, streptomycin, lincomycin, nalidixic acid, sulfadiazine, penicillin, gentamicin, kanamycin and ceftriaxone were 100, 99, 98, 97, 95, 94, 92, 88, 85 and 85, respectively. Ninety-seven isolates showed resistance to more than 2 antimicrobials, and 8 resistance groups (R1 to R8) were observed. This study demonstrates that pigs in India harbour both O157 and non-O157 STEC, and this may pose serious public health problems in future.Tropical Animal Health and Production 04/2014; · 1.09 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Abstract Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) are foodborne pathogens of worldwide importance, but a shortage of data exists for STEC isolation from India. Therefore, an epidemiological and environmental study that covers a large geographic area in north India was conducted. Ruminant stool samples (n=650) were collected from 59 dairies. Meat samples (n=450) were collected from local abattoirs and the main slaughterhouse of the region. Additionally, 600 human cases of diarrhea and hemolytic uremic syndrome were screened for STEC. Isolates were characterized for the virulence gene profiles and for the serogroups and were submitted to molecular typing by the multilocus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis (MLVA). Overall, 12.3% of animal stool samples and 6.3% of mutton samples (n=160) were positive for STEC. Additionally, STEC were isolated from 1.7% and 1.6% of watery (n=290) and bloody (n=310) stool specimens, respectively. Animal stool isolates were significantly more prevalent in hilly areas (p<0.05) than in plain areas. Polymerase chain reaction demonstrated the presence of stx1, stx2, hly, espP, saa, toxB, and iha genes in 117 (83.5%), 94 (67.1%), 77 (55%), 33 (23%), 62 (44.2%), 29 (20.7%), and 51 (36%) of the isolates, respectively. Five new serogroups (O55, O33, O173, O165, and O136) are being reported for the first time from India. Four isolates from serogroup O103 were found in mutton and stool specimens of cattle and humans (n=160). One isolate from serogroup O104 was isolated from a mutton sample. MLVA suggested the potential transmission of STEC from contaminated meat and bovine sources. This study confirms the frequent contamination of mutton samples (24%), whereas chicken and pork samples were negative for STEC. This study demonstrates the presence of STEC that carry a large repertoire of virulence genes and the potential transmission of STEC from contaminated mutton and animal stools in north India.Foodborne Pathogens and Disease 05/2014; · 2.28 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Abstract Objectives: Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) are an important cause of foodborne disease, yet global estimates of disease burden do not exist. Our objective was to estimate the global annual number of illnesses due to pathogenic STEC, and resultant hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS), end-stage renal disease (ESRD), and death. Materials: We searched Medline, Scopus, SIGLE/OpenGrey, and CABI and World Health Organization (WHO) databases for studies of STEC incidence in the general population, published between January 1, 1990 and April 30, 2012, in all languages. We searched health institution websites for notifiable disease data and reports, cross-referenced citations, and consulted international knowledge experts. We employed an a priori hierarchical study selection process and synthesized results using a stochastic simulation model to account for uncertainty inherent in the data. Results: We identified 16 articles and databases from 21 countries, from 10 of the 14 WHO Sub-Regions. We estimated that STEC causes 2,801,000 acute illnesses annually (95% Credible Interval [Cr.I.]: 1,710,000; 5,227,000), and leads to 3890 cases of HUS (95% Cr.I.: 2400; 6700), 270 cases of ESRD (95% Cr.I.: 20; 800), and 230 deaths (95% Cr.I.: 130; 420). Sensitivity analyses indicated these estimates are likely conservative. Conclusions: These are the first estimates of the global incidence of STEC-related illnesses, which have not been explicitly included in previous global burden of disease estimations. Compared to other pathogens with a foodborne transmission component, STEC appears to cause more cases than alveolar echinococcosis each year, but less than typhoid fever, foodborne trematodes, and nontyphoidal salmonellosis. Applications: Given the persistence of STEC globally, efforts aimed at reducing the burden of foodborne disease should consider the relative contribution of STEC in the target population.Foodborne Pathogens and Disease 04/2014; · 2.28 Impact Factor