Evaluation of a Prevention Intervention to Reduce HIV Risk among Angolan Soldiers

Drew CARES, Institute for Community Health Research, Department of Psychiatry and Human Behavior, Charles Drew University of Medicine and Science, 1731 East 120th Street, Building N, Los Angeles, CA 90059, USA.
AIDS and Behavior (Impact Factor: 3.49). 06/2008; 12(3):384-95. DOI: 10.1007/s10461-008-9368-2
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT We developed and evaluated a military-focused HIV prevention intervention to enhance HIV risk-reduction knowledge, motivation, and behaviors among Angolan soldiers. Twelve bases were randomly assigned to HIV prevention or control conditions, yielding 568 participants. HIV prevention participants received training in preventing HIV (4.5 days) and malaria (0.5 days). Control participants received the reverse. Monthly booster sessions were available after each intervention. We assessed participants at baseline, 3 and 6 months after the training. HIV prevention participants reported greater condom use and less unprotected anal sex at 3 months, as well as greater HIV-related knowledge and perceived vulnerability at 3 and 6 months. Within-group analyses showed HIV prevention participants increased condom use, reduced unprotected vaginal sex, and reduced numbers of partners at both follow-ups, while control participants improved on some outcomes at 3 months only. A military-focused HIV prevention intervention may increase HIV-related knowledge, motivation, and risk reduction among African soldiers.

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Alcohol prevention strategies for soldiers in sub-Saharan African countries suffer from limited knowledge about soldiers' alcohol consumption patterns. The present study was conducted to understand such patterns in Angolan soldiers, including associated risk and protective factors. From 12 military bases, 568 soldiers completed structured interviews that assessed demographic information, level of alcohol consumption, mental health, social support and religious activity. Logistic regressions were used to determine factors associated with any alcohol intake, problematic drinking, binge drinking and alcohol consumption prior to sexual activity. Nearly 35%% of participants exhibited problematic drinking behaviour on the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test. Approximately 26%% reported at least one incidence of binge drinking during the past year; 16%% described having recently consumed alcohol before sexual activity. Risk factors included being older, being unmarried, having poorer mental health or increased number of traumatic events and socialising with family and friends two to four times a month. Attending religious services more than once a week appeared to protect against problematic drinking. Results emphasise the need for effective alcohol prevention campaigns in Angola and for targeting efforts towards individuals exhibiting the observed high-risk characteristics.
    Journal of Substance Use 03/2012; 17(2). DOI:10.3109/14659891.2010.538462 · 0.48 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Despite recent declines in HIV incidence, sub-Saharan Africa remains the most heavily affected region in the global HIV/AIDS epidemic. Estimates of HIV prevalence in African military personnel are scarce and inconsistent. We conducted a serosurvey between June and September 2007 among 4043 Armed Forces personnel of the Democratic Republic of Congo (FARDC) stationed in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) to determine the prevalence of HIV and syphilis infections and describe associated risk behaviours. Participants provided blood for HIV and syphilis testing and responded to a demographic and risk factor questionnaire. The prevalence of HIV was 3.8% and the prevalence of syphilis was 11.9%. Women were more likely than men to be HIV positive, (7.5% vs. 3.6% respectively, aOR: 1.66, 95% C.I: 1.21-2.28, p < 0.05). Factors significantly associated with HIV infection included gender and self-reported genital ulcers in the 12 months before date of enrollment. The prevalence of HIV in the military appears to be higher than the general population in DRC (3.8% vs. 1.3%, respectively), with women at increased risk of infection.
    International Journal of STD & AIDS 05/2014; 26(3). DOI:10.1177/0956462414533672 · 1.04 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The sudden emergence of the AIDS epidemic in the 1980s created an urgent requirement to achieve rapid, voluntary, and sustained behavior change to protect individual and public health. Social psychologists, realizing the relevance of the research approaches and theoretical models that define the discipline, began applying existing research methodologies and conceptual models of attitude and behavior change and developed new models aimed at understanding, predicting, and promoting AIDS preventive behavior. This chapter explores the history of the AIDS epidemic, the unique behavior change challenges it poses, and the application of social psychological approaches in the fight against this disease. We review classical social psychological theories that have been applied to promote safer sex behavior change and describe a novel Information–Motivation–Behavioral Skills (IMB) conceptualization that was developed to strengthen efforts to understand, predict, and promote AIDS preventive behavior. The IMB model has been applied successfully to understanding and predicting AIDS risk and AIDS preventive behavior in diverse settings worldwide, and IMB model-based interventions have produced sustained improvements in AIDS preventive behavior in a wide variety of intervention settings. Applications of the IMB model across multiple health behavior domains, including the prediction and promotion of adherence to medical regimen, cardiac health, and diabetes self-management, have established the IMB model as a highly generalizable theoretical and applied approach to health behavior change.
    Advances in Experimental Social Psychology, Edited by J. Olson & M. Zanna, 01/2014: chapter Social psychology and the fight against AIDS: An Information-Motivation-Behavioral Skills model for the prediction and promotion of health behavior change: pages 105-193; Elsevier.


Available from