Surgery and Radiofrequency Ablation for Treatment of Liver Metastases from Midgut and Foregut Carcinoids and Endocrine Pancreatic Tumors

Department of Surgery, University Hospital, SE-751 85 Uppsala, Sweden.
World Journal of Surgery (Impact Factor: 2.64). 06/2008; 32(5):930-8. DOI: 10.1007/s00268-008-9510-3
Source: PubMed


Many neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) have a tendency to metastasize to the liver. In case of limited number of metastases, liver surgery or radiofrequency ablation (RFA) may result in apparently total clearance of metastases. However, it is not clear whether such therapy will provide symptom reduction or increased survival.
Seventy-three patients with foregut (n=6) or midgut carcinoids (n=37) or endocrine pancreatic tumors (n=28), and two patients with NETs without discernable origin were studied. Symptoms were evaluated using a Symptom Severity Score. Liver surgery was performed in 42 operations and RFA on 205 lesions.
Apparently total clearance of liver metastases was attained in 1 of 6 patients with foregut carcinoids, 15 of 37 with midgut carcinoids, and 13 of 28 with EPT. Symptom improvement was noted in 12 of 17 (70.6%) patients with carcinoid syndrome, and 75% also reduced their 5-HIAA and P-CgA by at least 50%. Patients with nonfunctioning EPT generally had no improvement of symptoms after surgical/RFA liver treatment, but eight patients had functioning EPT, and four of these reduced their biochemical markers by at least 50%. NETs with higher Ki67 index tended to recur more often. Complications occurred in 9 of 45 open surgery procedures, and in 8 of 203 RFA procedures.
Treatment of liver metastases is successful in midgut carcinoid patients with limited liver metastases. Patients with foregut carcinoid and EPTs recur more often, possibly related to higher Ki67 index, and treatment of liver lesions less often reduces symptoms. Liver resections and RFA may be safely performed, and RFA is associated with few complications.

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    • "Some studies [22, 65, 102, 109] are excluded in the tables as the data is not stratified to liver resections and thus no meaningful data can be extracted for liver resections. "
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    ABSTRACT: Management of Neuroendocrine liver metastases (NELM) is challenging. The presence of NELM worsens survival outcome and almost 10% of all liver metastases are neuroendocrine in origin. There is no firm consensus on the optimal treatment strategy for NELM. A systematic search of the PubMed database was performed from 1995-2010, to collate the current evidence and formulate a sound management algorithm. There are 22 case series with a total of 793 patients who had undergone surgery for NELM. The overall survival ranges from 46-86% at 5 years, 35-79% at 10 years, and the median survival ranges from 52-123 months. After successful cytoreductive surgery, the mean duration of symptom reduction is between 16-26 months, and the 5-year recurrence/progression rate ranges from 59-76%. Five studies evaluated the efficacy of a combination cytoreductive strategy reporting survival rate of ranging from 83% at 3 years to 50% at 10 years. To date, there is no level 1 evidence comparing surgery versus other liver-directed treatment options for NELM. An aggressive surgical approach, including combination with additional liver-directed procedures is recommended as it leads to long-term survival, significant long-term palliation, and a good quality of life. A multidisciplinary approach should be established as the platform for decision making.
    01/2012; 2012(10):146590. DOI:10.1155/2012/146590
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    • "We identified additional studies through hand searches of bibliographies from primary studies, review articles and key journals; the search yielded 49 hits [14,15,16,17,18,19,20,21,22,23,24,25,26,27,28,29,30,31,32,33,34,35,36,37,38,39,40,41,42,43,44,45,46,47,48,49,50,51,52,53,54,55,56,57,58,59,60,61,62]. Only full text papers in the English language were considered; letters, reviews without original data and animal studies, as well as studies treating cancers other than pancreatic adenocarcinoma, were excluded (40 papers in total) [14,15,16,17,18,19,21,22,24,25,26,27,28,29,31,32,33,34,35,37,40,43,44,45,46,47,48,49,50,51,52,53,54,55,56,57,58,59,60,61]. Of the remaining nine papers, we also excluded four papers because they contained data reported previously [20,23,38,42]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Advanced ductal pancreatic carcinoma (PC) remains a challenge for current surgical and medical approaches. It has recently been claimed that radiofrequency ablation (RFA) may be beneficial for patients with locally advanced or metastatic PC. Using the MEDLINE database, we found seven studies involving 106 patients in which PC was treated using RFA. The PC was mainly located in the pancreatic head (66.9%) with a median size of 4.6 cm. RFA was carried out in 85 patients (80.1%) with locally advanced PC and in 21 (19.9%) with metastatic disease. Palliative surgical procedures were carried out in 41.5% of the patients. The average temperature used was 90 °C (with a temperature range of 30-105 °C) and the ratio between the number of passes of the probe and the size of the tumor in centimeters was 0.5 (range of 0.36-1). The median postoperative morbidity and mortality were 28.3% and 7.5%, respectively; the median survival was 6.5 months (range of 1-33 months). In conclusion, RFA is a feasible technique: however, its safety and long-term results are disappointing; Thus, the RFA procedure should not be recommended in clinical practice for a PC patient.
    Cancers 09/2010; 2(3):1419-1431. DOI:10.3390/cancers2031419
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