Pharmacologic treatment of ADHD: road conditions in driving patients to successful outcomes.
ABSTRACT The names assigned to attention-deficit/hyperactive disorder (ADHD) have changed over the years. ADHD cannot be cured, and the patient with ADHD journeys through life with a burden. Although ADHD is most commonly studied in school-aged children, it is a syndrome that spans the life cycle, through adolescence and into adulthood. Improvements in patient adherence to pharmacologic treatment, attributable to the launch of new formulations, the availability of new non-schedule II drugs, and the development of novel drugs in late-stage clinical trials, are transforming the treatment of ADHD. For example, atomoxetine is a nonstimulant treatment, and lisdexamfetamine was developed with the goal of providing an extended duration of effect with a reduced potential for abuse, overdose toxicity, and drug tampering. Known adverse effects of stimulant treatment of ADHD include appetite suppression and sleep disturbance. Other adverse effects, such as growth suppression and substance use disorder, are controversial. The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) recently issued a public health advisory for drugs approved for the treatment of ADHD to provide more information for patients about potential risks of ADHD medications. Additional research is needed on approaches for treating ADHD in adolescents transitioning into adulthood, as are studies on the relationships between ADHD and comorbidities such as substance use disorder.
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ABSTRACT: Pharmacotherapy plays a primary role in the management of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), despite the availability of effective behavioral interventions. Psychostimulants are the most commonly prescribed form of pharmacotherapy for patients with ADHD and their benefits in managed care are severalfold, leading not only to symptom resolution and improved quality of life for patients, but also reduced costs for payers and purchasers. The use of these agents requires careful consideration and management by health plan stakeholders for optimal effectiveness. Concerns regarding medication adherence, in addition to the potential for diversion and abuse of psychostimulants, highlight the importance of effective pharmacotherapy management in patients with ADHD. Initiatives promoting medication adherence, such as patient/parent education, provider follow-up, and adverse effect management, are crucial for ensuring treatment success. Once-daily, extended-release formulations of stimulants may also contribute to improving medication adherence, as may managed care pharmacy interventions such as pharmacy database monitoring.The American journal of managed care 06/2009; 15(5 Suppl):S141-50. · 2.17 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: There is a perception that phentermine pharmacotherapy for obesity increases blood pressure and heart rate (HR), exposing treated patients to increased cardiovascular risk. We collected data from phentermine-treated (PT) and phentermine-untreated (P0) patients at a private weight management practice, to examine blood pressure, HR, and weight changes. Records of 300 sequential returning patients were selected who had been treated with a low-carbohydrate ketogenic diet if their records included complete weight, blood pressure, and HR data from seven office examinations during the first 12 weeks of therapy. The mean time in therapy, time range, and mode was 92 (97.0), 12-624, and 52 weeks. 14% were normotensive, 52% were prehypertensive, and 34% were hypertensive at their first visit or had a previous diagnosis of hypertension. PT subjects systolic blood pressure/diastolic blood pressure (SBP/DBP) declined from baseline at all data points (SBP/DBP -6.9/-5.0 mm Hg at 26, and -7.3/-5.4 at 52 weeks). P0 subjects' declines of SBP/DBP at both 26 and 52 weeks were -8.9/-6.3 but the difference from the treated cohort was not significant. HR changes in treated/untreated subjects at weeks 26 (-0.9/-3.5) and 52 (+1.2/-3.6) were not significant. Weight loss was significantly greater in the PT cohort for week 1 through 104 (P = 0.0144). These data suggest phentermine treatment for obesity does not result in increased SBP, DBP, or HR, and that weight loss assisted with phentermine treatment is associated with favorable shifts in categorical blood pressure and retardation of progression to hypertension in obese patients.Obesity 04/2011; 19(12):2351-60. DOI:10.1038/oby.2011.94 · 4.39 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with substantial functional, clinical and economic burdens. It is among the most common psychiatric disorders in children and adolescents, and often persists into adulthood. Both medication and psychosocial interventions are recommended for the treatment of ADHD. However, ADHD treatment practices vary considerably, depending on medication availability, reimbursement and the evolution of clinical practice in each country. In Europe, stimulants and atomoxetine are widely available medications for the treatment of ADHD, whereas in the US approved treatment options also include extended-release formulations of clonidine and guanfacine. Lisdexamfetamine dimesylate (lisdexamfetamine) is a long-acting, prodrug formulation of dexamfetamine. It is currently licensed in the US, Canada and Brazil, and is undergoing phase III studies in Europe. We performed a PubMed/MEDLINE search looking for recent (2005-2012) scientific papers regarding the pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, efficacy and safety of lisdexamfetamine. The lisdexamfetamine molecule is therapeutically inactive and is enzymatically hydrolysed, primarily in the blood, to the active dexamfetamine. This conversion is unaffected by gastrointestinal pH and variations in normal transit times. Lisdexamfetamine was developed with the goal of providing an extended duration of effect that is consistent throughout the day. Clinical trials have demonstrated robust clinical efficacy of lisdexamfetamine in the treatment of children, adolescents and adults with ADHD with dose-dependent improvements in the core symptoms of ADHD. Studies have further shown that the duration of action of lisdexamfetamine continues for 13 hours post-dosing in children and for 14 hours in adults. The tolerability profile of lisdexamfetamine is consistent with those of other stimulant medications, with decreased appetite, insomnia, abdominal pain and irritability among the more frequent treatment-emergent adverse events, most of which are mild to moderate in intensity and transient in nature. There are currently no parallel-group, head-to-head trial data comparing the efficacy and safety of lisdexamfetamine with other medications for ADHD. However, the available data, including a large effect size and consistent plasma concentrations throughout the day, suggest that lisdexamfetamine is a useful treatment option for patients with ADHD.CNS Drugs 07/2012; 26(8):691-705. DOI:10.2165/11634340-000000000-00000 · 4.38 Impact Factor