Article

Effects of statins on adipose tissue inflammation their inhibitory effect on MyD88-independent IRF3/IFN-beta pathway in macrophages

Department of Metabolic Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka University, Osaka, Japan.
Arteriosclerosis Thrombosis and Vascular Biology (Impact Factor: 5.53). 06/2008; 28(5):871-7. DOI: 10.1161/ATVBAHA.107.160663
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Macrophage-mediated chronic inflammation of adipose tissue is causally linked to insulin resistance in obesity. The beneficial effects of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl (HMG) coenzyme A (CoA) reductase inhibitors (statins) on glucose metabolism have been suggested, but the effects of these agents on adipose tissue inflammation are unclear. The aim of the present study is to define the effects of statins on adipose tissue inflammation and macrophages.
Pravastatin or pitavastatin treatment of obese mice attenuated an increase in mRNA expressions of proinflammatory genes, including MCP1 and IL6, in adipose tissue. The supernatant of TLR4-stimulated RAW264 macrophages strongly induced the expression of these genes in 3T3-L1 adipocytes, which was inhibited by pretreatment of macrophages with either statin. Statins inhibited TLR4-mediated activation of interferon (IFN) regulatory factor (IRF)3 by either lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or palmitic acid, resulting in suppression of IFN-beta expression, but not that of NF-kappaB or JNK. Moreover, statins strongly downregulated TLR3-mediated gene expressions by poly(I:C), but not TLR2-stimulation by zymosan A. Neutralization of IFN-beta attenuated proinflammatory activities of the macrophage supernatant.
Statins partially attenuated the development of adipose tissue inflammation in obese mice, which might be associated with an inhibitory effect of statins on TLR4-triggered expression of IFN-beta via MyD88-independent signaling pathway in macrophages.

1 Follower
 · 
124 Views
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Endothelial dysfunction drives vascular derangement and organ failure associated with sepsis. However, the consequences of sepsis on liver sinusoidal endothelial function are largely unknown. Statins might improve microvascular dysfunction in sepsis. The present study explores liver vascular abnormalities and the effects of statins in a rat model of endotoxemia. For this purpose, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or saline was given to: (1) rats treated with placebo; (2) rats treated with simvastatin (25 mg/kg, orally), given at 3 and 23 hours after LPS/saline challenge; (3) rats treated with simvastatin (25 mg/kg/24 h, orally) from 3 days before LPS/saline injection. Livers were isolated and perfused and sinusoidal endothelial function was explored by testing the vasodilation of the liver circulation to increasing concentrations of acetylcholine. The phosphorylated endothelial nitric oxide synthase (PeNOS) / endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) ratio was measured as a marker of eNOS activation. LPS administration induced an increase in baseline portal perfusion pressure and a decrease in vasodilation to acetylcholine (sinusoidal endothelial dysfunction). This was associated with reduced eNOS phosphorylation and liver inflammation. Simvastatin after LPS challenge did not prevent the increase in baseline portal perfusion pressure, but attenuated the development of sinusoidal endothelial dysfunction. Treatment with simvastatin from 3 days before LPS prevented the increase in baseline perfusion pressure and totally normalized the vasodilating response of the liver vasculature to acetylcholine and reduced liver inflammation. Both protocols of treatment restored a physiologic PeNOS/eNOS ratio. Conclusion: LPS administration induces intrahepatic endothelial dysfunction that might be prevented by simvastatin, suggesting that statins might have potential for liver protection during endotoxemia. (HEPATOLOGY 2013)
    Hepatology 03/2013; 57(3). DOI:10.1002/hep.26127 · 11.19 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In several studies on patients with bloodstream infection (BSI), prior use of statins has been associated with improved survival. Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria alert the innate immune system in different ways. We, therefore, studied whether the relation between prior statin use and 90-day total mortality differed between Gram-positive and Gram-negative BSI. We conducted a prospective observational cohort study of 1,408 adults with BSI admitted to Levanger Hospital between January 1, 2002, and December 31, 2011. Data on the use of statins and other medications at admission, comorbidities, functional status, treatment, and outcome were obtained from the patients' hospital records. The relation of statin use with 90-day mortality differed between Gram-negative and Gram-positive BSI (p-value for interaction 0.01). Among patients with Gram-negative BSI, statin users had significantly lower 90-day total mortality [odds ratio (OR) 0.42, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.23-0.75, p = 0.003]. The association remained essentially unchanged after adjusting for the effect of sex, age, functional status before the infection, and underlying diseases that were considered confounders (adjusted OR 0.38, 95 % CI 0.20-0.72, p = 0.003). A similar analysis of patients with Gram-positive BSI showed no association of statin use with mortality (adjusted OR 1.22, 95 % CI 0.69-2.17, p = 0.49). The present study suggests that prior statin use is associated with a lower 90-day total mortality in Gram-negative BSI, but not in Gram-positive BSI.
    European Journal of Clinical Microbiology 11/2014; 34(3). DOI:10.1007/s10096-014-2269-6 · 2.54 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) are an important constituent of the macrophage glycocalyx and extracellular microenvironment. To examine their role in atherogenesis, we inactivated the biosynthetic gene N-acetylglucosamine N-deacetylase-N-sulfotransferase 1 (Ndst1) in macrophages and crossbred the strain to Ldlr−/− mice. When placed on an atherogenic diet, Ldlr−/−Ndst1f/fLysMCre+ mice had increased atherosclerotic plaque area and volume compared to Ldlr−/− mice. Diminished sulfation of heparan sulfate resulted in enhanced chemokine expression; increased macrophages in plaques; increased expression of ACAT2, a key enzyme in cholesterol ester storage; and increased foam cell conversion. Motif analysis of promoters of upregulated genes suggested increased type I interferon signaling, which was confirmed by elevation of STAT1 phosphorylation induced by IFN-β. The proinflammatory macrophages derived from Ndst1f/fLysMCre+ mice also sensitized the animals to diet-induced obesity. We propose that macrophage HSPGs control basal activation of macrophages by maintaining type I interferon reception in a quiescent state through sequestration of IFN-β.
    Cell Metabolism 11/2014; 20(50):813–826. DOI:10.1016/j.cmet.2014.09.016 · 16.75 Impact Factor

Full-text (4 Sources)

Download
97 Downloads
Available from
Jun 4, 2014

Similar Publications