In vitro characterization of three-dimensional scaffolds seeded with human bone marrow stromal cells for tissue engineered growth of bone: mission impossible? A methodological approach.
ABSTRACT The aim of the present report was to evaluate current methods of in vitro analysis of three-dimensional (3D) scaffolds seeded with human bone marrow stromal cells (hBMSCs) from six bone marrow aspirates for tissue engineered growth of bone.
A series of experiments was conducted to compare methods of cell expansion and to validate analysis of proliferation and differentiation of hBMSCs in long term cultures of up to 40 days in 3D scaffolds of calcium carbonate (CaCO(3)) and mineralized collagen. Proliferation within the seeded scaffolds was monitored using cell counting, 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide (MTT), neutral red (NR) and DNA fluorescence assays and compared with empty controls. Differentiation was assessed by means of ELISA for osteocalcin (OC) and real time PCR for OC and collagen I (Coll I).
The results showed that the scaffold differed in seeding efficacy (CaCO(3): 53.3%, min. Coll.: 83.3%). The precise identification of the number of cells in biomaterials by MTT, NR and DNA assays was problematic, as MTT and NR assay overestimated the number of cells, whereas DNA assay grossly underestimated the number of cells on the scaffolds. Monitoring of changes over time may be biased by unspecific material-dependent background activity that has to be taken into account. Identification of osteogenic differentiation is not reliable by identifying osteogenic markers such as OC in the supernatant but has to be done on the transcriptional level.
It is concluded that monitoring of in vitro procedures for the construction of biohybrid scaffolds requires more emphasis in order to make the cell based approach a reliable treatment option in tissue engineering.
- [show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: A convenient way to estimate the number of viable cells growing in microtitre tray wells is to use a colorimetric assay and an automatic microplate scanning spectrophotometer. One such assay, developed by Mosmann, depends on the reduction by living cells of tetrazolium salt, MTT, to form a blue formazan product. However the original technique has several technical limitations, namely a less than optimal sensitivity, a variable background due to protein precipitation on adding an organic solvent to dissolve the blue formazan product, and a low solubility of the product. These problems have been overcome by the following modifications: avoidance of serum in the incubation medium, thus overcoming precipitation problems in the organic solvent; avoidance of phenol red in the incubation medium, thus avoiding the use of acid in the final solvent which altered the spectral properties of the formazan; elimination of the medium containing MTT after the reaction and subsequent use of pure propanol or ethanol to rapidly solubilize the formazan; use of a higher concentration of MTT; use of half-area microtitre trays to increase the spectrophotometer readings from a given amount of formazan; use of a more judicious reference wavelength in a dual wavelength spectrophotometer. With these modifications the reliability and sensitivity of the test have been increased to the point where it can in many cases replace the [3H]thymidine uptake assay to measure cell proliferation or survival in growth factor or cytotoxicity assays. Examples of its use in IL-2 assays are given.Journal of Immunological Methods 06/1986; 89(2):271-7. · 2.23 Impact Factor
- [show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Bone marrow contains a population of rare progenitor cells capable of differentiating into bone, cartilage, tendon, and other connective tissues. These cells, referred to as mesenchymal stem cells, can be purified and culture-expanded from animals and humans and have been shown to regenerate functional tissue when delivered to the site of musculoskeletal defects in experimental animals. To test the ability of purified human mesenchymal stem cells to heal a clinically significant bone defect, mesenchymal stem cells isolated from normal human bone marrow were culture-expanded, loaded onto a ceramic carrier, and implanted into critical-sized segmental defects in the femurs of adult athymic rats. For comparison, cell-free ceramics were implanted in the contralateral limb. The animals were euthanized at 4, 8, or 12 weeks, and healing bone defects were compared by high-resolution radiography, immunohistochemistry, quantitative histomorphometry, and biomechanical testing. In mesenchymal stem cell-loaded samples, radiographic and histologic evidence of new bone was apparent by 8 weeks and histomorphometry demonstrated increasing bone formation through 12 weeks. Biomechanical evaluation confirmed that femurs implanted with mesenchymal stem cell-loaded ceramics were significantly stronger than those that received cell-free ceramics. These studies demonstrate that human mesenchymal stem cells can regenerate bone in a clinically significant osseous defect and may therefore provide an alternative to autogenous bone grafts.Journal of Orthopaedic Research 04/1998; 16(2):155-62. · 2.88 Impact Factor
- [show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: We report studies of bone tissue engineering using human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), a protein substrate (film or scaffold; fast degrading unmodified collagen, or slowly degrading cross-linked collagen and silk), and a bioreactor (static culture, spinner flask, or perfused cartridge). MSCs were isolated from human bone marrow, characterized for the expression of cell surface markers and the ability to undergo chondrogenesis and osteogenesis in vitro, and cultured for 5 weeks. MSCs were positive for CD105/endoglin, and had a potential for chondrogenic and osteogenic differentiation. In static culture, calcium deposition was similar for MSC grown on collagen scaffolds and films. Under medium flow, MSC on collagen scaffolds deposited more calcium and had a higher alcaline phosphatase (AP) activity than MSC on collagen films. The amounts of DNA were markedly higher in constructs based on slowly degrading (modified collagen and silk) scaffolds than on fast degrading (unmodified collagen) scaffolds. In spinner flasks, medium flow around constructs resulted in the formation of bone rods within the peripheral region, that were interconnected and perpendicular to the construct surface, whereas in perfused constructs, individual bone rods oriented in the direction of fluid flow formed throughout the construct volume. These results suggest that osteogenesis in cultured MSC can be modulated by scaffold properties and flow environment.Annals of Biomedical Engineering 02/2004; 32(1):112-22. · 2.58 Impact Factor