Dysregulation of mitochondrial biogenesis in vascular endothelial and smooth muscle cells of aged rats
ABSTRACT Mitochondrial biogenesis is involved in the control of cell metabolism, signal transduction, and regulation of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Despite the central role of mitochondria in cellular aging and endothelial physiology, there are no studies extant investigating age-related alterations in mitochondrial biogenesis in blood vessels. Electronmicroscopy and confocal microscopy (en face Mitotracker staining) revealed that in aortas of F344 rats, a decline in mitochondrial biogenesis occurs with aging. In aged vessels, the expression of the mitochondrial biogenesis factors (including mitochondrial transcription factor A and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator-1) was decreased. The vascular expression of complex I, III, and IV significantly declined with age, whereas aging did not alter the expression of complex II and V. Cytochrome c oxidase (COX) expression/activity exhibited the greatest age-related decline, which was associated with increased mitochondrial ROS production in the aged vessels. In cultured coronary arterial endothelial cells, a partial knockdown of COX significantly increased mitochondrial ROS production. In conclusion, vascular aging is characterized by a decline in mitochondrial mass in the endothelial cells and an altered expression of components of the mitochondrial electron transport chain likely due to a dysregulation of mitochondrial biogenesis factors. We posit that impaired mitochondrial biogenesis and downregulation of COX may contribute to the increased mitochondrial oxidative stress in aged endothelial cells.
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- "To analyze protein expression of SIRT1 Western blotting was performed as described(Csiszar et al., 2007b; Ungvari et al., 2008b), using a rabbit polyclonal antibody diirected against the C-terminus of SIRT1 (Abcam #ab28170). The antibody detects a band of approximately 91 kDa, which is significantly attenuated after knockdown of SIRT1 by siRNA (Fig. 2C), showing the specificity of the antibody binding. "
ABSTRACT: Endothelial dysfunction, oxidative stress and inflammation are associated with vascular aging and promote the development of cardiovascular disease. Caloric restriction (CR) mitigates conditions associated with aging, but its effects on vascular dysfunction during aging remain poorly defined. To determine whether CR exerts vasoprotective effects in aging, aortas of ad libitum (AL) fed young and aged and CR-aged F344 rats were compared. Aging in AL-rats was associated with impaired acetylcholine-induced relaxation, vascular oxidative stress and increased NF-kappaB activity. Lifelong CR significantly improved endothelial function, attenuated vascular ROS production, inhibited NF-kappaB activity and down-regulated inflammatory genes. To elucidate the role of circulating factors in mediation of the vasoprotective effects of CR, we determined whether sera obtained from CR animals can confer anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory effects in cultured coronary arterial endothelial cells (CAECs), mimicking the effects of CR. In CAECs cultured in the presence of AL serum TNFalpha elicited oxidative stress, NF-kappaB activation and inflammatory gene expression. By contrast, treatment of CAECs with CR serum attenuated TNFalpha-induced ROS generation and prevented NF-kappaB activation and induction of inflammatory genes. siRNA knockdown of SIRT1 mitigated the anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of CR serum. CR exerts anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory vascular effects, which are likely mediated by circulating factors, in part, via a SIRT1-dependent pathway.Mechanisms of ageing and development 07/2009; 130(8):518-27. DOI:10.1016/j.mad.2009.06.004 · 3.51 Impact Factor
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- "Decreases in mitochondrial content are noted in various tissues and are associated with neurodegenerative, cardiovascular and metabolic diseases (Boveris & Navarro, 2008; Reeve et al. 2008; Ungvari et al. 2008). For instance, diabetic humans have reduced skeletal muscle mitochondria (He et al. 2001) that fail to increase ATP production in response to insulin infusion (Asmann et al. 2006). "
ABSTRACT: Using the hyperphagic, obese, Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rat, we sought to determine if progression to type 2 diabetes alters visceral white adipose tissue (WAT) mitochondrial content and if these changes are modified through prevention of type 2 diabetes with daily exercise. At 4 weeks of age, OLETF rats began voluntary wheel running (OLETF-EX) while additional OLETF rats (OLETF-SED) and Long-Evans Tokushima Otsuka (LETO-SED) rats served as obese and lean sedentary controls, respectively, for 13, 20 and 40 weeks of age (n = 6-8 for each group at each age). OLETF-SED animals displayed insulin resistance at 13 and 20 weeks and type 2 diabetes by 40 weeks. OLETF-SED animals gained significantly (P < 0.001) more weight and omental fat mass compared with OLETF-EX and LETO-SED. Markers of WAT mitochondrial protein content (cytochrome c, COXIV-subunit I, and citrate synthase activity) significantly increased (P < 0.05) from 13 to 40 weeks in the LETO-SED, but were significantly attenuated in the OLETF-SED rats. Daily exercise normalized WAT cytochrome c and COXIV-subunit I protein content in the OLETF-EX to the healthy LETO-SED animals. In conclusion, increases in omental WAT mitochondrial content between 20 and 40 weeks of age in LETO control animals are attenuated in the hyperphagic, obese OLETF rat. These alterations occurred in conjunction with the progression from insulin resistance to type 2 diabetes and were prevented with daily exercise. Reduced ability to increase WAT mitochondrial content does not appear to be a primary cause of insulin resistance, but may play a key role in the worsening of the disease condition.The Journal of Physiology 06/2009; 587(Pt 14):3729-39. DOI:10.1113/jphysiol.2009.172601 · 4.54 Impact Factor
Article: Oxidative stress and vascular aging[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: In attempt to meet tissue demands for proper blood flow, the vasculature alters its structure, simultaneously responding to both physical and chemical stresses. Substantial information has emerged in this field of study, particularly concerning the roles of the endothelium and smooth muscle cells in relation to signaling pathways for mechanotransduction. As a first line of defense upon exposure to various stressors, the endothelium and smooth muscle cells respond with adaptive cellular modifications. One prime example of these modifications is the cellular response to oxidative stress as evidenced by accumulated data. A recent proposal of the inflammatory hypothesis of vascular aging emphasized that stress-induced vascular aging may be the primary event that underlies the general aging phenomenon of systemic dysfunction.Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice 01/2002; 54 Suppl 2(54). DOI:10.1016/S0168-8227(01)00338-2 · 2.54 Impact Factor