Confocal blue reflectance imaging in type 2 idiopathic macular telangiectasia.
ABSTRACT To report the characteristics of confocal blue reflectance imaging in type 2 idiopathic macular telangiectasia (type 2 IMT).
In a prospective observational cross-sectional study, both eyes of 33 patients with type 2 IMT were examined by means of fundus biomicroscopy, fundus photography, fluorescein angiography, and optical coherence tomography (OCT). Confocal blue reflectance (CBR) imaging was performed using a confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscope (HRA2; Heidelberg Engineering, Heidelberg, Germany). To compare the results derived from different imaging modalities, an analysis was performed using image analysis software (Heidelberg Eye Explorer; Heidelberg Engineering).
CBR imaging revealed a parafoveal area of increased reflectance that was slightly larger than the area of hyperfluorescence in late-phase fluorescein angiography. The area usually encompassed an oval parafoveal area, but sectors could be spared. A parafoveal area of increased CBR was detected in 98% of eyes that showed angiographic evidence for type 2 IMT.
CBR imaging is a new, noninvasive, and sensitive method that may contribute to differentiate type 2 IMT from other diseases. Abnormalities of macular pigment distribution and Müller cell pathology may contribute to the phenomenon of increased CBR and thus the pathophysiology of type 2 IMT.
Article: Clinical use and research applications of Heidelberg retinal angiography and spectral-domain optical coherence tomography - a review.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Fluorescein angiography (FA) was discovered by Nowotny and Alvis in the 1960s of the 20th century and has evolved to become the 'Gold standard' for macular diagnostics. Scanning laser imaging technology achieved enhancement of contrast and resolution. The combined Heidelberg retina angiograph (HRA2) adds novel innovative features to established fundus cameras. The principle of confocal scanning laser imaging provides a high resolution of retinal and choroidal vasculature with low light exposure providing comfort and safety for the patient. Enhanced contrast, details and image sharpness image are generated using confocality. For the visualization of the choroid an indocyanine green angiography (ICGA) is the most suitable application. The main indications for ICGA are age-related macular degeneration, choroidal polypoidal vasculopathy and choroidal haemangiomas. Simultaneous digital FA and ICGA images with three-dimensional resolution offer improved diagnosis of retinal and choroidal pathologies. High-speed ICGA dynamic imaging can identify feeder vessels and retinal choroidal anastomoses, ensuring safer treatment of choroidal neovascularization. Autofluorescence imaging and fundus reflectance imaging with blue and infrared light offer new follow-up parameters for retinal diseases. Finally, the real-time optical coherence tomography provides a new level of accuracy for assessment of the angiographic and morphological correlation. The combination of various macular diagnostic tools, such as infrared, blue reflectance, fundus autofluorescence, FA, ICGA and also spectral domain optical coherence tomography, lead to a better understanding and improved knowledge of macular diseases.Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology 02/2009; 37(1):130-43. · 1.98 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To find the gene(s) responsible for macular telangiectasia type 2 (MacTel) by a candidate-gene screening approach. Candidate genes were selected based on the following criteria: those known to cause or be associated with diseases with phenotypes similar to MacTel, genes with known function in the retinal vasculature or macular pigment transport, genes that emerged from expression microarray data from mouse models designed to mimic MacTel phenotype characteristics, and genes expressed in the retina that are also related to diabetes or hypertension, which have increased prevalence in MacTel patients. Probands from eight families with at least two affected individuals were screened by direct sequencing of 27 candidate genes. Identified nonsynonymous variants were analyzed to determine whether they co-segregate with the disease in families. Allele frequencies were determined by TaqMan analysis of the large MacTel and control cohorts. We identified 23 nonsynonymous variants in 27 candidate genes in at least one proband. Of these, eight were known single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with allele frequencies of >0.05; these variants were excluded from further analyses. Three previously unidentified missense variants, three missense variants with reported disease association, and five rare variants were analyzed for segregation and/or allele frequencies. No variant fulfilled the criteria of being causal for MacTel. A missense mutation, p.Pro33Ser in frizzled homolog (Drosophila) 4 (FZD4), previously suggested as a disease-causing variant in familial exudative vitreoretinopathy, was determined to be a rare benign polymorphism. We have ruled out the exons and flanking intronic regions in 27 candidate genes as harboring causal mutations for MacTel.Molecular vision 01/2010; 16:2718-26. · 2.20 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To describe spectral high-resolution optical coherence tomography (OCT) findings correlated with fundus autofluorescence (FAF), confocal blue reflectance (CBR), and fluorescein angiography (FA) patterns in patients affected by Type 2A idiopathic juxtafoveolar retinal telangiectasis. We reviewed OCT, FA, CBR, and FAF images of both eyes from 11 patients affected by Type 2A idiopathic juxtafoveolar retinal telangiectasis. One eye had Stage 2 disease, 13 eyes had Stage 3 disease, 5 eyes had Stage 4 disease, and 3 eyes had Stage 5 disease. All the imaging modalities were obtained with a combined instrument for confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscopy and Spectral-domain OCT. Simultaneous acquisition of OCT images with FA, CBR, and FAF images was achieved with perfect point-to-point correspondence. Increased parafoveal CBR was observed in all but 2 eyes that had Stage 5 disease. A correspondence of hyperautofluorescence on FAF and anatomical localization of the intraretinal cyst was observed in the 16 eyes where the cyst was visible by OCT. All eyes showed some alterations of the plexiform layers. A correspondence between increased CBR and late-phase FA hyperfluorescence occurred in the 4 eyes with focal and oval CBR pattern, whereas none of the 10 eyes with ring-pattern lesions had this correspondence. Patterns of increased CBR corresponded to areas of increased FAF in 94% of eligible eyes. The simultaneous acquisition of Spectral-domain OCT and reference images (FA, FAF, and CBR) with point-to-point correlation may further add to the understanding of morphologic alterations in Type 2A idiopathic juxtafoveolar retinal telangiectasis.Retina (Philadelphia, Pa.) 10/2009; 30(2):317-26. · 2.93 Impact Factor