Prescription omega-3 fatty acids and their lipid effects: physiologic mechanisms of action and clinical implications.
ABSTRACT Hypertriglyceridemia is a risk factor for atherosclerotic coronary heart disease. Very high triglyceride (TG) levels (> or =500 mg/dl [5.65 mmol/l]) increase the risk of pancreatitis. One therapeutic option to lower TG levels is omega-3 fatty acids, which are derived from the oil of fish and other seafood. The American Heart Association has acknowledged that fish oils may decrease dysrhythmias, decrease sudden death, decrease the rate of atherosclerosis and slightly lower blood pressure, and has recommended fish consumption or fish oil supplementation as a therapeutic strategy to reduce cardiovascular disease. A prescription omega-3-acid ethyl esters (P-OM3) preparation has been available in many European nations for at least a decade, and was approved by the US FDA in 2004 to reduce very high TG levels (> or =500 mg/dl [5.65 mmol/l]). Mechanistically, most evidence suggests that omega-3 fatty acids reduce the synthesis and secretion of very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) particles, and increase TG removal from VLDL and chylomicron particles through the upregulation of enzymes, such as lipoprotein lipase. Omega-3 fatty acids differ mechanistically from other lipid-altering drugs, which helps to explain why therapies such as P-OM3 have complementary mechanisms of action and, thus, complementary lipid benefits when administered with statins. Additional human studies are needed to define more clearly the cellular and molecular basis for the TG-lowering effects of omega-3 fatty acids and their favorable cardiovascular effects, particularly in patients with hypertriglyceridemia.
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ABSTRACT: Objective Studies have reported elevated serum insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) levels followed by omega-3 supplementation in various groups. Considering decreased level of IGF-1 in patients with cardiovascular disease (CVD) and protective effects of IGF-1 against CVD progression and myocardial infarctions mortality, this study performed with the aim of determining effects of omega-3 supplementation on serum levels and gene expression of IGF1 and IGF binding protein 3 (IGFBP-3) in men with CVD Research Methods and procedures Sixty two middle aged (Age=55.9±6.5) non-obese male CVD patients accomplished the study protocol in two groups of omega-3 (n=31) or placebo (n=31). Participants took omega-3 supplement or placebo (edible paraffin) for 8 weeks while they were asked not to change their diet or physical activity plan. Anthropometric and lipid profile characteristics, serum IGF-1, serum IGFBP-3 and also IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 gene expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were measured in all participants before and after the intervention. Statistical analyses were performed using SPSS software. Results There were no significant differences between two study groups in age and BMI at the baseline. Two groups also had no difference in baseline serum LDL, HDL, VLDL, TG & IGF-1. Compared to placebo, omega-3 supplementation increased serum IGF-1 levels (P value=0.01), and decreased serum level of IGFBP-3 (P value=0.02). There were a trending toward increase in IGF-1 expression and non-significant decrease in IGFBP-3expression. Conclusion Omega3 supplementation in patients with CVD increases serum IGF1 level and decreases serum IGFBP3. Further research is warranted to investigate the underlying mechanisms.Nutrition 10/2014; 31(3). · 3.05 Impact Factor
- LipidSpin. 01/2014; 12(4):21-22.
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ABSTRACT: Hyperlipidemia and stress are important factors affecting cardiovascular health in middle-aged individuals. We investigated the effects of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) and sesame oil on the lipidemic status, liver architecture and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis of middle-aged mice fed a cholesterol-enriched diet. We randomized 36 middle-aged C57bl/6 mice into 6 groups: a control group, a cholesterol/cholic acid diet group, a cholesterol/cholic acid diet group with NAC supplementation, a cholesterol/cholic acid diet enriched with 10% sesame oil and two groups receiving a control diet enriched with NAC or sesame oil. NAC administration prevented the onset of the disturbed lipid profile, exhibiting decreased lipid peroxidation and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) levels, restored nitric oxide bioavailability and reduced hepatic damage, compared to non-supplemented groups. High-cholesterol feeding resulted in increased glucocorticoid receptors (GR) levels, while NAC supplementation prevented this effect. NAC supplementation presented significant antioxidant capacity by means of preventing serum lipid status alterations, hepatic damage, and HPA axis disturbance due to high-cholesterol feeding in middle-aged mice. These findings suggest a beneficial preventive action of plant-derived antioxidants, such as NAC, on lipid metabolism and on the HPA axis.Scientific Reports 10/2014; · 5.08 Impact Factor