Cells by design: a mini-review of targeting cell engineering using DNA microarrays.
ABSTRACT Recent studies have demonstrated the utility of DNA microarray technology in engineering cellular properties. For instance, cellular adhesion, the necessity of cells to attach to a surface in order to to proliferate, was examined by comparing two distinct HeLa cell lines. Two genes, one encoding a type II membrane glycosylating sialyltransferase (siat7e) and the other encoding a secreted glycoprotein (lama4), were found to influence adhesion. The expression of siat7e correlated with reduced adhesion, whereas expression of lama4 correlated with increased adhesion, as shown by various assays. In a separate example, a gene encoding a mitochondrial assembly protein (cox15) and a gene encoding a kinase (cdkl3), were found to influence cellular growth. Enhanced expression of either gene resulted in slightly higher specific growth rates and higher maximum cell densities for HeLa, HEK-293, and CHO cell lines. Another investigated property was the adaptation of HEK-293 cells to serum-free media. The genes egr1 and gas6, both with anti-apoptotic properties, were identified as potentially improving adaptability by impacting viability at low serum levels. In trying to control apoptosis, researchers found that by altering the expression levels of four genes faim, fadd, alg-2, and requiem, apoptotic response could be altered. In the present work, these and related studies in microorganisms (prokaryote and eukaryote) are examined in greater detail focusing on the approach of using DNA microarrays to direct cellular behavior by targeting select genes.
- SourceAvailable from: Víctor Carriel[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Human umbilical cord Wharton's jelly stem cells (HWJSCs) are gaining attention as a possible clinical source of mesenchymal stem cells for cell therapy and tissue engineering due to their high accessibility, expansion potential, and plasticity. We employed a combination of highly sensitive techniques to determine the average cell viability levels and proliferation capabilities of 10 consecutive cell passages of cultured HWJSCs and then used RNA microarrays to identify genes associated with changes in cell viability levels. We found an initial decrease in cell viability from the first to the third cell passage followed by an increase until the sixth passage and a final decrease from the sixth to tenth cell passages. The highest cell viability levels corresponded to the fifth and sixth passages. The intracellular ionic contents of potassium, sodium, and chlorine suggest that the lower cell viability levels at passages 2, 3, and 8-10 may be associated with apoptotic cell death. In fact, gene expression analysis revealed that the average cell viability was significantly associated with genes with a function in apoptotic cell death, especially pro-apoptotic FASTKD2, BNIP3L genes and anti-apoptotic TNFAIP8 and BCL2L2 genes. This correlation with both pro-apoptotic and anti-apoptotic genes suggests that there may be a complex live-death equilibrium in cultured HWJSCs kept in culture for multiple cell passages. In this study, the highest cell viability levels corresponded to the fifth and sixth HWJSC passages, suggesting that these passages should be preferentially employed in cell therapy or tissue engineering protocols using this cell type.Tissue Engineering Part C Methods 12/2011; 18(6):408-19. · 4.64 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Experimental data about the modulation of adhesion and proliferation of anchorage-dependent HeLa cells with monochromatic or quasimonochromatic radiation in red to near-infrared region are presented. Cell adhesion and proliferation can be increased by irradiation with light of certain wavelengths (maxima in action spectrum are 619, 675, 740, 760, and 820 nm) or decreased when the activity of photoacceptor (cytochrome c oxidase in mitochondrial respiratory chain) is inhibited by chemicals before the irradiation. This modality allows controlling the number of attached and/or proliferating cells. Possible biotechnology applications of this method are outlined.International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Life 07/2011; 63(9):747-53. · 2.79 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The pharmaceutical and biotech industries face continued pressure to reduce development costs and accelerate process development. This challenge occurs alongside the need for increased upstream experimentation to support quality by design initiatives and the pursuit of predictive models from systems biology. A small scale system enabling multiple reactions in parallel (n ≥ 20), with automated sampling and integrated to purification, would provide significant improvement (four to fivefold) to development timelines. State of the art attempts to pursue high throughput process development include shake flasks, microfluidic reactors, microtiter plates and small-scale stirred reactors. The limitations of these systems are compared to desired criteria to mimic large scale commercial processes. The comparison shows that significant technological improvement is still required to provide automated solutions that can speed upstream process development.Biotechnology Progress 01/2011; 27(1):2-14. · 1.88 Impact Factor