On the importance of plasmalogen status in stimulated arachidonic acid release in the macrophage cell line RAW 264.7.
ABSTRACT We examined the dependence of stimulated arachidonic acid release on plasmalogens using the murine, macrophage cell line 264.7 and two plasmalogen-deficient variants, RAW.12 and RAW.108. All three strains responded to unopsinized zymosan to release arachidonic acid from phospholipid stores. Arachidonic acid release appeared to be dependent on calcium-independent phospholipase A(2) activation (iPLA(2)); bromoenol lactone, a specific inhibitor of calcium-independent iPLA(2), blocked arachidonic acid release with an IC(50) of approximately 2 x 10(-7)M. Propanolol, an inhibitor of phosphatidate phosphatase, and RHC-80267, an inhibitor of diglyceride lipase, had no effect on arachidonic acid release. Arachidonic acid release in the variants displayed similar magnitude, kinetics of response and sensitivity to the inhibitors when compared to the parent strain. Arachidonic acid was released from all major phospholipid head group classes with the exception of sphingomyelin. In wild-type cells, arachidonic acid released from the ethanolamine phospholipids was primarily from the plasmalogen form. However, in the plasmalogen-deficient cells release from the diacyl species, phosphatidylethanolamine, was increased to compensate. Restoration of plasmalogens by supplementation of the growth medium with the bypass compounds sn-1-hexadecylglycerol and sn-1-alkenylglycerol had no effect on arachidonic acid release. In summary, plasmalogen status appears to have no influence on the zymosan A stimulated release of arachidonic acid from the RAW 264.7 cell line.
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ABSTRACT: The objective of this work was to detect and identify phosphatidylserine plasmalogen species in human ocular neurons represented by the retina and the optic nerve. Plasmalogens (vinyl-ether bearing phospholipids) are commonly found in the forms of phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine in numerous mammalian cell types, including the retina. Although their biological functions are unclear, the alteration of cellular plasmalogen content has been associated with several human disorders such as rhizomelic chondrodysplasia punctata Type 2 and primary open-angle glaucoma. By using liquid chromatography coupled to high-resolution and tandem mass spectrometry, we have identified for the first time several species of phosphatidylserine plasmalogens, including atypical forms having moieties with odd numbers of carbons and unsaturation in sn-2 position. Structural elucidation of the potential phosphatidylserine ether linked species was pursued by performing MS(3) experiments, and three fragments are proposed as marker ions to deduce which fatty acid is linked as ether or ester on the glycerol backbone. Interpretation of the fragmentation patterns based on this scheme enabled the assignment of structures to the m/z values, thereby identifying the phosphatidylserine plasmalogens.The Journal of Lipid Research 01/2012; 53(4):776-83. · 4.73 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The multi-faceted roles of calcium-independent phospholipase A2β (iPLA2β) in numerous cellular processes have been extensively examined through utilization of the iPLA2-selective inhibitor (E)-6-(bromomethylene)-3-(1-naphthalenyl)-2H-tetrahydropyran-2-one (BEL). Herein, we employed accurate mass/high resolution mass spectrometry to demonstrate that the active site serine (S465) and C651 of iPLA2β are covalently cross-linked during incubations with BEL demonstrating their close spatial proximity. This crosslink results in macroscopic alterations in enzyme molecular geometry evidenced by anomalous migration of the cross-linked enzyme by SDS-PAGE. Molecular models of iPLA2β constructed from the crystal structure of iPLA2α (patatin) indicate that the distance between S465 and C651 is approximately 10 Å within the ac-tive site of iPLA2β. Kinetic analysis of the formation of the 75 kDa iPLA2β-BEL species with the (R) and (S) enantiomers of BEL demonstrated that the reaction of (S)-BEL with iPLA2β was more rapid than for (R)-BEL paralleling the enantioselectivity for the inhibition of catalysis by each inhibitor with iPLA2β. Moreover, we demonstrate that the previously identified selective acylation of iPLA2β by oleoyl-CoA occurs at C651 thereby indicating the importance of active site architecture for acylation of this enzyme. Collectively, these results identify C651 as a highly reactive nucleophilic residue within the active site of iPLA2β which is thioesterified by BEL, acylated by oleoyl-CoA and located in close spatial proximity to the catalytic serine thereby providing important chemical insights on the mechanisms through which BEL inhibits iPLA2β and the topology of the active site.Biochemistry 05/2013; · 3.38 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Ethanolamine plasmalogens constitute a group of ether glycerophospholipids that, due to their unique biophysical and biochemical properties, are essential components of mammalian cellular membranes. Their importance is emphasized by the consequences of defects in plasmalogen biosynthesis, which in humans cause the fatal disease rhizomelic chondrodysplasia punctata (RCDP). In the present lipidomic study, we used fibroblasts derived from RCDP patients, as well as brain tissue from plasmalogen-deficient mice, to examine the compensatory mechanisms of lipid homeostasis in response to plasmalogen deficiency. Our results show that phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), a diacyl glycerophospholipid, which like ethanolamine plasmalogens carries the head group ethanolamine, is the main player in the adaptation to plasmalogen insufficiency. PE levels were tightly adjusted to the amount of ethanolamine plasmalogens so that their combined levels were kept constant. Similarly, the total amount of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in ethanolamine phospholipids was maintained upon plasmalogen deficiency. However, we found an increased incorporation of arachidonic acid at the expense of docosahexaenoic acid in the PE fraction of plasmalogen-deficient tissues. These data show that under conditions of reduced plasmalogen levels, the amount of total ethanolamine phospholipids is precisely maintained by a rise in PE. At the same time, a shift in the ratio between ω-6 and ω-3 PUFAs occurs, which might have unfavorable, long-term biological consequences. Therefore, our findings are not only of interest for RCDP but may have more widespread implications also for other disease conditions, as for example Alzheimer's disease, that have been associated with a decline in plasmalogens.Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Molecular and Cell Biology of Lipids 11/2014; · 4.50 Impact Factor