MOBKL1A/MOBKL1B phosphorylation by MST1 and MST2 inhibits cell proliferation.

Diabetes Unit and Medical Services and Department of Molecular Biology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02114, USA.
Current Biology (Impact Factor: 9.92). 04/2008; 18(5):311-21. DOI: 10.1016/j.cub.2008.02.006
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT MST1 and MST2 are the mammalian Ste20-related protein kinases most closely related to Drosophila Hippo, a major regulator of cell proliferation and survival during development. Overexpression of MST1 or MST2 in mammalian cells is proapototic; however, little is known concerning the physiologic regulation of the endogenous MST1/MST2 kinases, their role in mammalian cell proliferation, or the identity of the MST1/MST2 substrates critical to proliferative regulation.
We show that MST1 and MST2 activity increases during mitosis, especially in nocodazole-arrested mitotic cells, where these kinases exhibit both an increase in both abundance and activation. MST1 and MST2 also can be activated nonphysiologically by okadaic acid or H2O2. The MOBKL1A and MOBKL1B polypeptides, homologs of the Drosophila MATS polypeptide, are identified as preferred MST1/MST2 substrates in vitro and are phosphorylated in cells in an MST1/MST2-dependent manner in mitosis and in response to okadaic acid or H2O2. MST1/MST2-catalyzed MOBKL1A/MOBKL1B phosphorylation alters the ability of MOBKL1A/MOBKL1B to bind and regulate downstream targets such as the NDR-family protein kinases. Thus, MOBKL1A/MOBKL1B phosphorylation in cells promotes MOBKL1A/MOBKL1B binding to the LATS1 kinase and enables H2O2-stimulated LATS1 activation loop phosphorylation. Most importantly, replacement of endogenous MOBKL1A/MOBKL1B by a nonphosphorylatable mutant is sufficient to accelerate cell proliferation substantially by speeding progression through G1/S as well as mitotic exit.
These results establish that MST1 and MST2 are activated in mitosis and catalyze the mitotic phosphorylation of MOBKL1A/MOBKL1B. MOBKL1A/MOBKL1B phosphorylation, in turn, is sufficient to inhibit proliferation through actions at several points in the cell cycle.

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The transcriptional regulators YAP and TAZ are the focus of intense interest given their remarkable biological properties in development, tissue homeostasis and cancer. YAP and TAZ activity is key for the growth of whole organs, for amplification of tissue-specific progenitor cells during tissue renewal and regeneration, and for cell proliferation. In tumors, YAP/TAZ can reprogram cancer cells into cancer stem cells and incite tumor initiation, progression and metastasis. As such, YAP/TAZ are appealing therapeutic targets in cancer and regenerative medicine. Just like the function of YAP/TAZ offers a molecular entry point into the mysteries of tissue biology, their regulation by upstream cues is equally captivating. YAP/TAZ are well known for being the effectors of the Hippo signaling cascade, and mouse mutants in Hippo pathway components display remarkable phenotypes of organ overgrowth, enhanced stem cell content and reduced cellular differentiation. YAP/TAZ are primary sensors of the cell's physical nature, as defined by cell structure, shape and polarity. YAP/TAZ activation also reflects the cell "social" behavior, including cell adhesion and the mechanical signals that the cell receives from tissue architecture and surrounding extracellular matrix (ECM). At the same time, YAP/TAZ entertain relationships with morphogenetic signals, such as Wnt growth factors, and are also regulated by Rho, GPCRs and mevalonate metabolism. YAP/TAZ thus appear at the centerpiece of a signaling nexus by which cells take control of their behavior according to their own shape, spatial location and growth factor context.
    Physiological Reviews 10/2014; 94(4):1287-1312. · 29.04 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The Hippo pathway controls cell number and organ size by restricting cell proliferation and promoting apoptosis, and thus is a key regulator in development and homeostasis. Dysfunction of the Hippo pathway correlates with many pathological conditions, especially cancer. Hippo signaling also plays important roles in tissue regeneration and stem cell biology. Therefore, the Hippo pathway is recognized as a crucial target for cancer therapy and regeneration medicine. To date, structures of several key components in Hippo signaling have been determined. In this review, we summarize current available structural studies of the Hippo pathway, which may help to improve our understanding of its regulatory mechanisms, as well as to facilitate further functional studies and potential therapeutic interventions. © The Author 2014. Published by ABBS Editorial Office in association with Oxford University Press on behalf of the Institute of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences.
    Acta Biochimica et Biophysica Sinica 12/2014; · 2.09 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Primary cilia are microtubule-based organelles that protrude from polarized epithelial cells. Although many structural and trafficking molecules that regulate ciliogenesis have been discovered, signalling proteins are not well defined. Here we show that the MST1/2-SAV1 complex, a core component of the Hippo pathway, promotes ciliogenesis. MST1 is activated during ciliogenesis and localizes to the basal body of cilia. Depletion of MST1/2 or SAV1 impairs ciliogenesis in cultured cells and induces ciliopathy phenotypes in zebrafish. MST1/2-SAV1 regulates ciliogenesis through two independent mechanisms: MST1/2 binds and phosphorylates Aurora kinase A (AURKA), leading to dissociation of the AURKA/HDAC6 cilia-disassembly complex; and MST1/2-SAV1 associates with the NPHP transition-zone complex, promoting ciliary localization of multiple ciliary cargoes. Our results suggest that components of the Hippo pathway contribute to establish a polarized cell structure in addition to regulating proliferation.
    Nature Communications 11/2014; 5:5370. · 10.74 Impact Factor