Prevalence and correlates of indoor tanning among US adults

Division of Population Science, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA.
Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology (Impact Factor: 4.45). 06/2008; 58(5):769-80. DOI: 10.1016/j.jaad.2008.01.020
Source: PubMed


Little is known about the prevalence of indoor tanning among the US general adult population.
This study sought to: (1) describe the prevalence of indoor tanning throughout adulthood; (2) identify demographic and psychosocial correlates of indoor tanning; and (3) determine whether these correlates vary by age group.
This study used data from the 2005 National Health Interview Survey, an annual health survey of the US adult population.
Indoor tanning rates were higher among individuals who were young, white, and female. Rates of indoor tanning in the last year varied from 20.4% for those aged 18 to 29 years to 7.8% for those aged 65 years and older. A variety of demographic, health, and behavioral health risk factors correlated with indoor tanning.
The study design was cross-sectional and all data were self-reported.
Health care providers should address indoor tanning as a health risk factor across the lifespan.

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Available from: Carolyn Heckman,
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    • "Much of the prior descriptive research on indoor tanning has been limited to adolescents, students, or young adults, whereas our study includes a population with a broader age range. While one recent study examined a similar population, the outcome was limited to indoor tanning in the past year [28]. In contrast, we evaluated indoor tanning habits over an individual's life, with detailed information on frequency, duration, and age at initiation. "
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    ABSTRACT: Despite educational and public health campaigns to convey the risks of indoor tanning, many individuals around the world continue to engage in this behavior. Few descriptive studies of indoor tanning have collected information pertaining to the lifetime history of indoor tanning, thereby limiting our ability to understand indoor tanning patterns and potentially target interventions for individuals who not only initiate, but continue to persistently engage in indoor tanning. In-person interviews elicited detailed retrospective information on lifetime history of indoor tanning among white individuals (n = 401) under age 40 seen by a dermatologist for a minor benign skin condition. These individuals were controls in a case-control study of early-onset basal cell carcinoma. Outcomes of interest included ever indoor tanning in both males and females, as well as persistent indoor tanning in females - defined as females over age 31 who tanned indoors at least once in the last three or all four of four specified age periods (ages 11-15, 16-20, 21-30 and 31 or older). Multivariate logistic regression was used to identify sociodemographic and lifestyle correlates of ever and persistent indoor tanning in females. Approximately three-quarters (73.3%) of females and 38.3% of males ever tanned indoors, with a median age of initiation of 17.0 and 21.5, respectively. Among indoor tanners, 39.3% of females and 21.7% of males reported being burned while indoor tanning. Female ever indoor tanners were younger, had darker color eyes, and sunbathed more frequently than females who never tanned indoors. Using unique lifetime exposure data, 24.7% of female indoor tanners 31 and older persistently tanned indoors starting as teenagers. Female persistent indoor tanners drank significantly more alcohol, were less educated, had skin that tanned with prolonged sun exposure, and sunbathed outdoors more frequently than non-persistent tanners. Indoor tanning was strikingly common in this population, especially among females. Persistent indoor tanners had other high-risk behaviors (alcohol, sunbathing), suggesting that multi-faceted behavioral interventions aimed at health promotion/disease prevention may be needed in this population.
    BMC Public Health 02/2012; 12(1):118. DOI:10.1186/1471-2458-12-118 · 2.26 Impact Factor
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    • "Rates are 22-45% among undergraduate indoor tanners (Heckman, Egleston et al., 2008; Mosher & Danoff-Burg, 2010a, 2010b; Poorsattar & Hornung, 2007). Among general college student samples in the USA, rates range from 12-27% (Heckman, Egleston et al., 2008; Mosher & Danoff-Burg, 2010a, 2010b; Poorsattar & Hornung, 2007). "

    Skin Cancers - Risk Factors, Prevention and Therapy, 11/2011; , ISBN: 978-953-307-722-2
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    • "Early intense exposure to UV radiation is associated with higher rates of skin cancer [8-12], and regular sunscreen use during childhood and adolescence could reduce lifetime incidence of non-melanoma skin cancers by approximately 78% [13]. Adolescence, in particular, is a critical period for skin cancer prevention because adolescents and young adults have the lowest skin protection rates of all age groups [14], receive large amounts of UV radiation [15-17], and increase their UV exposure habits as they move into adulthood and are less influenced by their parents [10,18]. In 2003, only 14% of US high school students reported routine sunscreen use [19]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Adolescents put themselves at risk of later skin cancer development and accelerated photo-aging due to their high rates of ultraviolet radiation exposure and low rates of skin protection. The purpose of the current study was to determine which of the Integrative Model constructs are most closely associated with sunscreen use among high school students. The current study of 242 high school students involved a survey based on the Integrative Model including demographic and individual difference factors, skin protection-related beliefs and outcome evaluations, normative beliefs, self-efficacy, sunscreen cues and availability, intentions, and sunscreen use. Our analyses included multiple linear regressions and bootstrapping to test for mediation effects. Sunscreen use was significantly associated with female gender, greater skin sensitivity, higher perceived sunscreen benefits, higher skin protection importance, more favorable sunscreen user prototype, stronger skin protection norms, greater perceived skin protection behavioral control, and higher sunscreen self-efficacy. Intentions to use sunscreen mediated the relationships between most skin protection-related beliefs and sunscreen use. The current study identified specific variables that can be targeted in interventions designed to increase sunscreen use among adolescents.
    BMC Public Health 08/2011; 11(1):679. DOI:10.1186/1471-2458-11-679 · 2.26 Impact Factor
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