Receptor for AGE (RAGE): Weaving tangled webs within the inflammatory response
ABSTRACT The family of RAGE ligands, including Advanced Glycation Endproducts (AGEs), S100/calgranulins, High Mobility Group Box-1 (HMGB1) and amyloid beta peptide (Abeta) and beta-sheet fibrils are highly enriched in immune and inflammatory foci. In parallel, upregulation of Receptor for AGE (RAGE) is noted in diverse forms of inflammation and autoimmunity, based on experiments examining human tissues as well as animal models. Indeed, prior to the demonstration that S100/calgranulins were signal transduction ligands of RAGE, these molecules were considered "biomarkers" of disease and disease activity in disorders such as colitis and arthritis. Premiere roles for RAGE in advancing cellular migration implicate this receptor in targeting immune cells to vulnerable foci. Once engaged, ligand-RAGE interaction in inflammatory and vascular cells amplifies upregulation of inflammatory cytokines, adhesion molecules and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). Discerning the primal versus chronic injury-provoking roles for this ligand-receptor interaction is a challenge in delineating the functions of the ligand/RAGE axis. As RAGE is expressed by many of the key cell types linked integrally to the immune response, we propose that the sites and time course of ligand-RAGE stimulation determine the phenotype produced by this axis. Ultimately, drawing the fine line between antagonism versus stimulation of the receptor in health and disease will depend on the full characterization of RAGE in repair versus injury.
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ABSTRACT: The Ca2+-binding protein of the EF-hand type, S100B, exerts both intracellular and extracellular functions. Recent studies have provided more detailed information concerning the mechanism(s) of action of S100B as an intracellular regulator and an extracellular signal. Indeed, intracellular S100B acts as a stimulator of cell proliferation and migration and an inhibitor of apoptosis and differentiation, which might have important implications during brain, cartilage and skeletal muscle development and repair, activation of astrocytes in the course of brain damage and neurodegenerative processes, and of cardiomyocyte remodeling after infarction, as well as in melanomagenesis and gliomagenesis. As an extracellular factor, S100B engages RAGE (receptor for advanced glycation end products) in a variety of cell types with different outcomes (i.e. beneficial or detrimental, pro-proliferative or pro-differentiative) depending on the concentration attained by the protein, the cell type and the microenvironment. Yet, RAGE might not be the sole S100B receptor, and S100B's ability to engage RAGE might be regulated by its interaction with other extracellular factors. Future studies using S100B transgenic and S100B null mice might shed more light on the functional role(s) of the protein.Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 06/2009; 1793(6):1008-22. DOI:10.1016/j.bbamcr.2008.11.009 · 4.66 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Several recent clinical studies have implied a role for the receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) and its variants in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). In this study we have defined a role for RAGE in the pathogenesis of emphysema in mice. RAGE deficient mice (RAGE-/-) exposed to chronic cigarette smoke were significantly protected from smoke induced emphysema as determined by airspace enlargement and had no significant reduction in lung tissue elastance when compared to their air exposed controls contrary to their wild type littermates. The progression of emphysema has been largely attributed to an increased inflammatory cell-mediated elastolysis. Acute cigarette smoke exposure in RAGE-/- mice revealed an impaired early recruitment of neutrophils, approximately a 6-fold decrease compared to wild type mice. Hence, impaired neutrophil recruitment with continued cigarette smoke exposure reduces elastolysis and consequent emphysema.PLoS ONE 03/2015; 10(3):e0118979. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0118979 · 3.53 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Tanshinone IIA (Tan IIA) is one of the major fat-soluble ingredients in Salvia miltiorrhiza which has been widely used for various inflammatory conditions associated with cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disorders. However, the underlying anti-inflammatory mechanisms of Tan IIA are incompletely understood. The purpose of this study was to illuminate the anti-inflammatory mechanism of Tan IIA based on the protein interaction network (PIN) analysis. A PIN of Tan IIA was constructed with 281 nodes and 814 interactions and analyzed by gene ontology (GO) enrichment analysis based on Markov Cluster algorithm (MCL). Three modules were associated with anti-inflammatory actions. The most interesting finding of this study was that the anti-inflammatory effect of Tan IIA may be partly attributable to the mediate activation of TRAF2, TRAF3 and TRAF6, to inhibit the toll-like receptor signaling pathway and combine with AGER. Therefore, the module-based network analysis approach will be a new method for better understanding the anti-inflammatory mechanism of Tan IIA.Bio-medical materials and engineering 01/2014; 24(6):3815-24. DOI:10.3233/BME-141211 · 0.85 Impact Factor