Management of brachial artery aneurisms in infants.
ABSTRACT Brachial artery aneurisms in children under 1 year of age are very rare. The main risk is distal ischaemic complication. We report four infants suffering from brachial artery aneurism of unknown origin. In all cases we used Doppler ultrasonography to validate the clinical diagnosis. Pre-operative vascular check-up was negative for other aneurismal location. Surgical excision with direct end-to-end anastomosis was possible in one patient; the others required interposition of an autologous venous graft. At discharge, patients were given oral aspirin for a few weeks. Histological examination revealed one pseudoaneurism and three true aneurisms. There were no complications either postoperatively or at 18 months follow-up. Arterial ligation might be indicated in only two situations: aneurism distal to profunda brachii artery, or chronic wall thrombus completely occluding (but distal perfusion through a neovascularization must be assessed first on angiography). Surgical excision with arterial reconstruction is the standard treatment. Endovascular treatment is not suitable because such a procedure in an infant would generate excessive radiation exposure, and a risk of stent migration with limb growth. In the case of an initial isolated and idiopathic presentation, or of false aneurism, clinical follow-up at 1 year is sufficient. In the case of secondary lesion, multiple initial presentation or relapse, life-long follow-up with repeated corporal imaging should be performed.