Supervising children during parental distractions.

Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, Division of Behavioral Medicine and Clinical Psychology, MLC 3015, 3333 Burnet Avenue, Cincinnati, OH 45229-3039, USA.
Journal of Pediatric Psychology (Impact Factor: 2.91). 04/2008; 33(8):833-41. DOI: 10.1093/jpepsy/jsn021
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT To examine the effects of parenting distractions on supervising behaviors in relation to child risky behaviors.
Forty preschool-aged children and their parents were randomly assigned to occupy a simulated home living room for 45 min with the parent involved in either (a) no planned distraction, (b) a telephone call distraction, (c) a TV show distraction, or (d) a computer assignment distraction. Parent and child behaviors were recorded and coded.
Parent supervising behaviors were significantly intercorrelated but revealed no relation to risky child behavior. Children showed higher risky behavior during parental distractions and steadily over time when parent distractions occurred. Additionally, younger children were more likely to engage in risky behavior when compared to older children.
Parents showed significant reductions in their ability to supervise children during distractions, limiting the ability to provide education or to take immediate action necessary to prevent or minimize possible injuries.


Available from: Richard E Boles, Jan 08, 2014
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    ABSTRACT: Background Childhood unintentional injury represents an important global health problem. Most of these injuries occur at home, and many are preventable. The main aim of this study was to identify key facilitators and barriers for parents in keeping their children safe from unintentional injury within their homes. A further aim was to develop an understanding of parents’ perceptions of what might help them to implement injury prevention activities. Methods Semi-structured interviews were conducted with sixty-four parents with a child aged less than five years at parent’s homes. Interview data was transcribed verbatim, and thematic analysis was undertaken. This was a Multi-centre qualitative study conducted in four study centres in England (Nottingham, Bristol, Norwich and Newcastle). Results Barriers to injury prevention included parents’ not anticipating injury risks nor the consequences of some risk-taking behaviours, a perception that some injuries were an inevitable part of child development, interrupted supervision due to distractions, maternal fatigue and the presence of older siblings, difficulties in adapting homes, unreliability and cost of safety equipment and provision of safety information later than needed in relation to child age and development. Facilitators for injury prevention included parental supervision and teaching children about injury risks. This included parents’ allowing children to learn about injury risks through controlled risk taking, using “safety rules” and supervising children to ensure that safety rules were adhered to. Adapting the home by installing safety equipment or removing hazards were also key facilitators. Some parents felt that learning about injury events through other parents’ experiences may help parents anticipate injury risks. Conclusions There are a range of barriers to, and facilitators for parents undertaking injury prevention that would be addressable during the design of home safety interventions. Addressing these in future studies may increase the effectiveness of interventions.
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    ABSTRACT: Aim To explore maternal perceptions of supervision and childhood unintentional injury in order to develop understanding and explanation for differences in unintentional injury rates between an advantaged and disadvantaged area.
    Primary Health Care Research & Development 05/2014; DOI:10.1017/S1463423614000218
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    ABSTRACT: (empirical) There is a paucity of research investigating multivariate factors in paediatric unintentional injury, yet uni- or bivariate risk factors do not suffice in explicating complex aetiological pathways. A first-phase pilot study was conducted to explore relations and structure of three toddler-variables proposed in a model of unintentional injury. The study aimed to determine the psychometric properties of measures and assess feasibility of methods. Forty-eight toddlers (15-26 months) comprised the sample, and were observed for 10 minutes in a playroom (a parent was present but facing away). The room was fit out with pseudo-risky items (e.g., plastic knife and fork, water-filled cleaning bottle) to mirror real-world environmental hazards. Parents completed questionnaires about child’s temperament and injury history prior to testing. Sound reliability and validity was found for the five observed Risky Behaviours (latency to engage with risky item; proximity to parent; visual-verbal interactions; innocuous engagement; hazardous engagement). Parent-report temperament and Injury Scores, derived from a novel, post-data collection rating scale for injury histories, revealed good internal consistency and convergent validity. Results revealed only one of five temperament factors (comprised of three traits: positive anticipation, low intensity pleasure, and sociability), was significant, revealing an interaction with toddler’s sex to produce differential risk of unintentional injury in girls and boys. It is concluded that multivariate investigations reveal important interactions that cannot be intuitively or statistically discerned through single or dual variables alone.
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