Biochemical and white blood cell profiles of baboon neonates consuming formulas with moderate and high dietary long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids.
ABSTRACT Clinical chemistry and complete blood count (CBC) values were determined in 14 term baboons (Papio species) consuming formula with moderate or high levels of dietary long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) from 2-12 weeks of age.
Neonates were randomized to three groups: C: Control, no LCPUFA; L: 0.33% docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)/0.67% arachidonic acid (ARA) (w/w); L3:1.00% DHA/0.67% ARA (w/w). Blood chemistries were assessed at 6 and 12 weeks and CBC parameters were measured at 2, 4, 8, 10, 12 weeks of age.
Dietary LCPUFA had significant effects on serum triglyceride (C > L,L3) and calcium (L > C,L3). No other significant effects of diet were detected; pooled values are presented for all other parameters.
These data provide longitudinal biochemical and white cell/platelet/immunological data on LCPUFA-fed baboons over the first 12 weeks of life. Data ranges are similar to reference data in cases for which values exist and hematological changes reflect trends observed during human neonatal development.
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ABSTRACT: Clinical studies show that docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and arachidonic acid (ARA) supplemented formula improve visual function in preterm infants, however improved fatty acid status is known only for plasma and red blood cells (RBC) since target organs cannot be sampled from humans. Baboons were randomized to one of four groups: Term breast-fed (B); Term formula-fed (T-); Preterm formula-fed (P-); and Preterm DHA/ARA-supplemented formula-fed (P+). The P+ contained 0.61 +/- 0.03% DHA and 1.21 +/- 0.09% ARA, and breast milk had 0.68 +/- 0.22% and 0.62 +/- 0.12% as DHA and ARA, respectively. The B and P+ groups had significantly higher DHA concentration in all tissues than T- and P-. The P- group showed dramatically lower DHA content of 35%, 27%, 66%, and 75% in the brain, retina, liver, and plasma, respectively, compared with B. Supplementation prevented declines in DHA levels in the retina, and liver, and attenuated the decline in brain, plasma and RBC of preterm animals. In contrast, ARA was not significantly lower compared with B in any group in any tissue but was significantly elevated in liver and brain. RBC and plasma DHA were correlated with DHA in tissues; RBC/plasma ARA were uncorrelated with tissue ARA. We conclude that 1) DHA drops precipitously in term and preterm primates consuming formula without long chain polyunsaturates, while 22:5n-6 concentration rises; 2) tissue ARA levels are insensitive to dietary LCP supplementation or prematurity, 3) plasma and RBC levels of ARA are uncorrelated with total ARA levels; 4) DHA levels are correlated with group effects and are uncorrelated within groups.Pediatric Research 09/2003; 54(2):244-52. · 2.67 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), a 22-carbon long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid of the omega-3 family, is a major structural component of neural membranes and is a particularly important nutrient during infant development. New safe and well-defined sources of DHA are required for infant formula fortification and dietary supplementation. DHASCO oil is an algal-derived triglyceride containing 40-50% DHA. Previous studies have shown that DHASCO oil is neither mutagenic nor toxic in acute or 28-day subchronic tests. To further establish the safety of this oil, a 90-day subchronic toxicity study in rats which included haematology, clinical chemistry, pathology and ophthalmologic, neurobehavioural and neuropathological assessments, using doses of 0.5 and 1.25g/kg body weight/day was performed. There were no treatment-related adverse effects in any of the parameters measured at either dose. Based on these results, the no-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) for DHASCO oil under the conditions of this study corresponds to the highest dose level. The DHA in the DHASCO oil was bioavailable, resulting in significant elevations in the levels of this fatty acid in liver, heart and brain after 90 days of administration. In conclusion, this 90-day subchronic toxicity study provides additional evidence that DHASCO oil is a safe and bioavailable source of dietary DHA.Food and Chemical Toxicology 02/2000; 38(1):35-49. · 3.01 Impact Factor
- Progress in Lipid Research 01/2001; 40(1-2):1-94. · 10.25 Impact Factor